## Available Master's thesis topics in machine learning

Main content.

Here we list topics that are available. You may also be interested in our list of completed Master's theses .

## Learning and inference with large Bayesian networks

Most learning and inference tasks with Bayesian networks are NP-hard. Therefore, one often resorts to using different heuristics that do not give any quality guarantees.

Task: Evaluate quality of large-scale learning or inference algorithms empirically.

Advisor: Pekka Parviainen

## Sum-product networks

Traditionally, probabilistic graphical models use a graph structure to represent dependencies and independencies between random variables. Sum-product networks are a relatively new type of a graphical model where the graphical structure models computations and not the relationships between variables. The benefit of this representation is that inference (computing conditional probabilities) can be done in linear time with respect to the size of the network.

Potential thesis topics in this area: a) Compare inference speed with sum-product networks and Bayesian networks. Characterize situations when one model is better than the other. b) Learning the sum-product networks is done using heuristic algorithms. What is the effect of approximation in practice?

## Bayesian Bayesian networks

The naming of Bayesian networks is somewhat misleading because there is nothing Bayesian in them per se; A Bayesian network is just a representation of a joint probability distribution. One can, of course, use a Bayesian network while doing Bayesian inference. One can also learn Bayesian networks in a Bayesian way. That is, instead of finding an optimal network one computes the posterior distribution over networks.

Task: Develop algorithms for Bayesian learning of Bayesian networks (e.g., MCMC, variational inference, EM)

## Large-scale (probabilistic) matrix factorization

The idea behind matrix factorization is to represent a large data matrix as a product of two or more smaller matrices.They are often used in, for example, dimensionality reduction and recommendation systems. Probabilistic matrix factorization methods can be used to quantify uncertainty in recommendations. However, large-scale (probabilistic) matrix factorization is computationally challenging.

Potential thesis topics in this area: a) Develop scalable methods for large-scale matrix factorization (non-probabilistic or probabilistic), b) Develop probabilistic methods for implicit feedback (e.g., recommmendation engine when there are no rankings but only knowledge whether a customer has bought an item)

## Bayesian deep learning

Standard deep neural networks do not quantify uncertainty in predictions. On the other hand, Bayesian methods provide a principled way to handle uncertainty. Combining these approaches leads to Bayesian neural networks. The challenge is that Bayesian neural networks can be cumbersome to use and difficult to learn.

The task is to analyze Bayesian neural networks and different inference algorithms in some simple setting.

## Deep learning for combinatorial problems

Deep learning is usually applied in regression or classification problems. However, there has been some recent work on using deep learning to develop heuristics for combinatorial optimization problems; see, e.g., [1] and [2].

Task: Choose a combinatorial problem (or several related problems) and develop deep learning methods to solve them.

References: [1] Vinyals, Fortunato and Jaitly: Pointer networks. NIPS 2015. [2] Dai, Khalil, Zhang, Dilkina and Song: Learning Combinatorial Optimization Algorithms over Graphs. NIPS 2017.

Advisors: Pekka Parviainen, Ahmad Hemmati

## Estimating the number of modes of an unknown function

Mode seeking considers estimating the number of local maxima of a function f. Sometimes one can find modes by, e.g., looking for points where the derivative of the function is zero. However, often the function is unknown and we have only access to some (possibly noisy) values of the function.

In topological data analysis, we can analyze topological structures using persistent homologies. For 1-dimensional signals, this can translate into looking at the birth/death persistence diagram, i.e. the birth and death of connected topological components as we expand the space around each point where we have observed our function. These observations turn out to be closely related to the modes (local maxima) of the function. A recent paper [1] proposed an efficient method for mode seeking.

In this project, the task is to extend the ideas from [1] to get a probabilistic estimate on the number of modes. To this end, one has to use probabilistic methods such as Gaussian processes.

[1] U. Bauer, A. Munk, H. Sieling, and M. Wardetzky. Persistence barcodes versus Kolmogorov signatures: Detecting modes of one-dimensional signals. Foundations of computational mathematics17:1 - 33, 2017.

Advisors: Pekka Parviainen , Nello Blaser

## Causal Abstraction Learning

We naturally make sense of the world around us by working out causal relationships between objects and by representing in our minds these objects with different degrees of approximation and detail. Both processes are essential to our understanding of reality, and likely to be fundamental for developing artificial intelligence. The first process may be expressed using the formalism of structural causal models, while the second can be grounded in the theory of causal abstraction [1]. This project will consider the problem of learning an abstraction between two given structural causal models. The primary goal will be the development of efficient algorithms able to learn a meaningful abstraction between the given causal models. [1] Rubenstein, Paul K., et al. "Causal consistency of structural equation models." arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.00819 (2017).

Advisor: Fabio Massimo Zennaro

## Causal Bandits

"Multi-armed bandit" is an informal name for slot machines, and the formal name of a large class of problems where an agent has to choose an action among a range of possibilities without knowing the ensuing rewards. Multi-armed bandit problems are one of the most essential reinforcement learning problems where an agent is directly faced with an exploitation-exploration trade-off. This project will consider a class of multi-armed bandits where an agent, upon taking an action, interacts with a causal system [1]. The primary goal will be the development of learning strategies that takes advantage of the underlying causal system in order to learn optimal policies in a shortest amount of time. [1] Lattimore, Finnian, Tor Lattimore, and Mark D. Reid. "Causal bandits: Learning good interventions via causal inference." Advances in neural information processing systems 29 (2016).

## Causal Modelling for Battery Manufacturing

Lithium-ion batteries are poised to be one of the most important sources of energy in the near future. Yet, the process of manufacturing these batteries is very hard to model and control. Optimizing the different phases of production to maximize the lifetime of the batteries is a non-trivial challenge since physical models are limited in scope and collecting experimental data is extremely expensive and time-consuming [1]. This project will consider the problem of aggregating and analyzing data regarding a few stages in the process of battery manufacturing. The primary goal will be the development of algorithms for transporting and integrating data collected in different contexts, as well as the use of explainable algorithms to interpret them. [1] Niri, Mona Faraji, et al. "Quantifying key factors for optimised manufacturing of Li-ion battery anode and cathode via artificial intelligence." Energy and AI 7 (2022): 100129.

Advisor: Fabio Massimo Zennaro , Mona Faraji Niri

## Reinforcement Learning for Computer Security

The field of computer security presents a wide variety of challenging problems for artificial intelligence and autonomous agents. Guaranteeing the security of a system against attacks and penetrations by malicious hackers has always been a central concern of this field, and machine learning could now offer a substantial contribution. Security capture-the-flag simulations are particularly well-suited as a testbed for the application and development of reinforcement learning algorithms [1]. This project will consider the use of reinforcement learning for the preventive purpose of testing systems and discovering vulnerabilities before they can be exploited. The primary goal will be the modelling of capture-the-flag challenges of interest and the development of reinforcement learning algorithms that can solve them. [1] Erdodi, Laszlo, and Fabio Massimo Zennaro. "The Agent Web Model--Modelling web hacking for reinforcement learning." arXiv preprint arXiv:2009.11274 (2020).

Advisor: Fabio Massimo Zennaro , Laszlo Tibor Erdodi

## Approaches to AI Safety

The world and the Internet are more and more populated by artificial autonomous agents carrying out tasks on our behalf. Many of these agents are provided with an objective and they learn their behaviour trying to achieve their objective as better as they can. However, this approach can not guarantee that an agent, while learning its behaviour, will not undertake actions that may have unforeseen and undesirable effects. Research in AI safety tries to design autonomous agent that will behave in a predictable and safe way [1]. This project will consider specific problems and novel solution in the domain of AI safety and reinforcement learning. The primary goal will be the development of innovative algorithms and their implementation withing established frameworks. [1] Amodei, Dario, et al. "Concrete problems in AI safety." arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.06565 (2016).

## Reinforcement Learning for Super-modelling

Super-modelling [1] is a technique designed for combining together complex dynamical models: pre-trained models are aggregated with messages and information being exchanged in order synchronize the behavior of the different modles and produce more accurate and reliable predictions. Super-models are used, for instance, in weather or climate science, where pre-existing models are ensembled together and their states dynamically aggregated to generate more realistic simulations.

This project will consider how reinforcement learning algorithms may be used to solve the coordination problem among the individual models forming a super-model. The primary goal will be the formulation of the super-modelling problem within the reinforcement learning framework and the study of custom RL algorithms to improve the overall performance of super-models.

[1] Schevenhoven, Francine, et al. "Supermodeling: improving predictions with an ensemble of interacting models." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 104.9 (2023): E1670-E1686.

Advisor: Fabio Massimo Zennaro , Francine Janneke Schevenhoven

## The Topology of Flight Paths

Air traffic data tells us the position, direction, and speed of an aircraft at a given time. In other words, if we restrict our focus to a single aircraft, we are looking at a multivariate time-series. We can visualize the flight path as a curve above earth's surface quite geometrically. Topological data analysis (TDA) provides different methods for analysing the shape of data. Consequently, TDA may help us to extract meaningful features from the air traffic data. Although the typical flight path shapes may not be particularly intriguing, we can attempt to identify more intriguing patterns or “abnormal” manoeuvres, such as aborted landings, go-arounds, or diverts.

Advisor: Odin Hoff Gardå , Nello Blaser

## Automatic hyperparameter selection for isomap

Isomap is a non-linear dimensionality reduction method with two free hyperparameters (number of nearest neighbors and neighborhood radius). Different hyperparameters result in dramatically different embeddings. Previous methods for selecting hyperparameters focused on choosing one optimal hyperparameter. In this project, you will explore the use of persistent homology to find parameter ranges that result in stable embeddings. The project has theoretic and computational aspects.

Advisor: Nello Blaser

## Validate persistent homology

Persistent homology is a generalization of hierarchical clustering to find more structure than just the clusters. Traditionally, hierarchical clustering has been evaluated using resampling methods and assessing stability properties. In this project you will generalize these resampling methods to develop novel stability properties that can be used to assess persistent homology. This project has theoretic and computational aspects.

## Topological Ancombs quartet

This topic is based on the classical Ancombs quartet and families of point sets with identical 1D persistence ( https://arxiv.org/abs/2202.00577 ). The goal is to generate more interesting datasets using the simulated annealing methods presented in ( http://library.usc.edu.ph/ACM/CHI%202017/1proc/p1290.pdf ). This project is mostly computational.

## Persistent homology vectorization with cycle location

There are many methods of vectorizing persistence diagrams, such as persistence landscapes, persistence images, PersLay and statistical summaries. Recently we have designed algorithms to in some cases efficiently detect the location of persistence cycles. In this project, you will vectorize not just the persistence diagram, but additional information such as the location of these cycles. This project is mostly computational with some theoretic aspects.

## Divisive covers

Divisive covers are a divisive technique for generating filtered simplicial complexes. They original used a naive way of dividing data into a cover. In this project, you will explore different methods of dividing space, based on principle component analysis, support vector machines and k-means clustering. In addition, you will explore methods of using divisive covers for classification. This project will be mostly computational.

## Learning Acquisition Functions for Cost-aware Bayesian Optimization

This is a follow-up project of an earlier Master thesis that developed a novel method for learning Acquisition Functions in Bayesian Optimization through the use of Reinforcement Learning. The goal of this project is to further generalize this method (more general input, learned cost-functions) and apply it to hyperparameter optimization for neural networks.

Advisors: Nello Blaser , Audun Ljone Henriksen

## Stable updates

This is a follow-up project of an earlier Master thesis that introduced and studied empirical stability in the context of tree-based models. The goal of this project is to develop stable update methods for deep learning models. You will design sevaral stable methods and empirically compare them (in terms of loss and stability) with a baseline and with one another.

Advisors: Morten Blørstad , Nello Blaser

## Multimodality in Bayesian neural network ensembles

One method to assess uncertainty in neural network predictions is to use dropout or noise generators at prediction time and run every prediction many times. This leads to a distribution of predictions. Informatively summarizing such probability distributions is a non-trivial task and the commonly used means and standard deviations result in the loss of crucial information, especially in the case of multimodal distributions with distinct likely outcomes. In this project, you will analyze such multimodal distributions with mixture models and develop ways to exploit such multimodality to improve training. This project can have theoretical, computational and applied aspects.

## Wet area segmentation for rivers

NORCE LFI is working on digitizing wetted areas in rivers. You will apply different machine learning techniques for distinguishing water bodies (rivers) from land based on drone aerial (RGB) pictures. This is important for water management and assessing effects of hydropower on river ecosystems (residual flow, stranding of fish and spawning areas). We have a database of approximately 100 rivers (aerial pictures created from totally ca. 120.000 single pictures with Structure from Motion, single pictures available as well) and several of these rivers are flown at 2-4 different discharges, taken in different seasons and with different weather patterns. For ca. 50 % of the pictures the wetted area is digitized for training (GIS shapefile), most (>90 % of single pictures) cover water surface and land. Possible challenges include shading, reflectance from the water surface, different water/ground colours and wet surfaces on land. This is an applied topic, where you will try many different machine learning techniques to find the best solution for the mapping tasks by NORCE LFI.

Advisor: Nello Blaser , Sebastian Franz Stranzl

## Learning a hierarchical metric

Often, labels have defined relationships to each other, for instance in a hierarchical taxonomy. E.g. ImageNet labels are derived from the WordNet graph, and biological species are taxonomically related, and can have similarities depending on life stage, sex, or other properties.

ArcFace is an alternative loss function that aims for an embedding that is more generally useful than softmax. It is commonly used in metric learning/few shot learning cases.

Here, we will develop a metric learning method that learns from data with hierarchical labels. Using multiple ArcFace heads, we will simultaneously learn to place representations to optimize the leaf label as well as intermediate labels on the path from leaf to root of the label tree. Using taxonomically classified plankton image data, we will measure performance as a function of ArcFace parameters (sharpness/temperature and margins -- class-wise or level-wise), and compare the results to existing methods.

Advisor: Ketil Malde ( [email protected] )

## Self-supervised object detection in video

One challenge with learning object detection is that in many scenes that stretch off into the distance, annotating small, far-off, or blurred objects is difficult. It is therefore desirable to learn from incompletely annotated scenes, and one-shot object detectors may suffer from incompletely annotated training data.

To address this, we will use a region-propsal algorithm (e.g. SelectiveSearch) to extract potential crops from each frame. Classification will be based on two approaches: a) training based on annotated fish vs random similarly-sized crops without annotations, and b) using a self-supervised method to build a representation for crops, and building a classifier for the extracted regions. The method will be evaluated against one-shot detectors and other training regimes.

If successful, the method will be applied to fish detection and tracking in videos from baited and unbaited underwater traps, and used to estimate abundance of various fish species.

See also: Benettino (2016): https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-48881-3_56

## Representation learning for object detection

While traditional classifiers work well with data that is labeled with disjoint classes and reasonably balanced class abundances, reality is often less clean. An alternative is to learn a vectors space embedding that reflects semantic relationships between objects, and deriving classes from this representation. This is especially useful for few-shot classification (ie. very few examples in the training data).

The task here is to extend a modern object detector (e.g. Yolo v8) to output an embedding of the identified object. Instead of a softmax classifier, we can learn the embedding either in a supervised manner (using annotations on frames) by attaching an ArcFace or other supervised metric learning head. Alternatively, the representation can be learned from tracked detections over time using e.g. a contrastive loss function to keep the representation for an object (approximately) constant over time. The performance of the resulting object detector will be measured on underwater videos, targeting species detection and/or indiviual recognition (re-ID).

## Time-domain object detection

Object detectors for video are normally trained on still frames, but it is evident (from human experience) that using time domain information is more effective. I.e., it can be hard to identify far-off or occluded objects in still images, but movement in time often reveals them.

Here we will extend a state of the art object detector (e.g. yolo v8) with time domain data. Instead of using a single frame as input, the model will be modified to take a set of frames surrounding the annotated frame as input. Performance will be compared to using single-frame detection.

## Large-scale visualization of acoustic data

The Institute of Marine Research has decades of acoustic data collected in various surveys. These data are in the process of being converted to data formats that can be processed and analyzed more easily using packages like Xarray and Dask.

The objective is to make these data more accessible to regular users by providing a visual front end. The user should be able to quickly zoom in and out, perform selection, export subsets, apply various filters and classifiers, and overlay annotations and other relevant auxiliary data.

## Learning acoustic target classification from simulation

Broadband echosounders emit a complex signal that spans a large frequency band. Different targets will reflect, absorb, and generate resonance at different amplitudes and frequencies, and it is therefore possible to classify targets at much higher resolution and accuracy than before. Due to the complexity of the received signals, deriving effective profiles that can be used to identify targets is difficult.

Here we will use simulated frequency spectra from geometric objects with various shapes, orientation, and other properties. We will train ML models to estimate (recover) the geometric and material properties of objects based on these spectra. The resulting model will be applied to read broadband data, and compared to traditional classification methods.

## Online learning in real-time systems

Build a model for the drilling process by using the Virtual simulator OpenLab ( https://openlab.app/ ) for real-time data generation and online learning techniques. The student will also do a short survey of existing online learning techniques and learn how to cope with errors and delays in the data.

Advisor: Rodica Mihai

## Building a finite state automaton for the drilling process by using queries and counterexamples

Datasets will be generated by using the Virtual simulator OpenLab ( https://openlab.app/ ). The student will study the datasets and decide upon a good setting to extract a finite state automaton for the drilling process. The student will also do a short survey of existing techniques for extracting finite state automata from process data. We present a novel algorithm that uses exact learning and abstraction to extract a deterministic finite automaton describing the state dynamics of a given trained RNN. We do this using Angluin's L*algorithm as a learner and the trained RNN as an oracle. Our technique efficiently extracts accurate automata from trained RNNs, even when the state vectors are large and require fine differentiation.arxiv.org

## Scaling Laws for Language Models in Generative AI

Large Language Models (LLM) power today's most prominent language technologies in Generative AI like ChatGPT, which, in turn, are changing the way that people access information and solve tasks of many kinds.

A recent interest on scaling laws for LLMs has shown trends on understanding how well they perform in terms of factors like the how much training data is used, how powerful the models are, or how much computational cost is allocated. (See, for example, Kaplan et al. - "Scaling Laws for Neural Language Models”, 2020.)

In this project, the task will consider to study scaling laws for different language models and with respect with one or multiple modeling factors.

Advisor: Dario Garigliotti

## Applications of causal inference methods to omics data

Many hard problems in machine learning are directly linked to causality [1]. The graphical causal inference framework developed by Judea Pearl can be traced back to pioneering work by Sewall Wright on path analysis in genetics and has inspired research in artificial intelligence (AI) [1].

The Michoel group has developed the open-source tool Findr [2] which provides efficient implementations of mediation and instrumental variable methods for applications to large sets of omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, etc.). Findr works well on a recent data set for yeast [3].

We encourage students to explore promising connections between the fiels of causal inference and machine learning. Feel free to contact us to discuss projects related to causal inference. Possible topics include: a) improving methods based on structural causal models, b) evaluating causal inference methods on data for model organisms, c) comparing methods based on causal models and neural network approaches.

References:

1. Schölkopf B, Causality for Machine Learning, arXiv (2019): https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.10500

2. Wang L and Michoel T. Efficient and accurate causal inference with hidden confounders from genome-transcriptome variation data. PLoS Computational Biology 13:e1005703 (2017). https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005703

3. Ludl A and and Michoel T. Comparison between instrumental variable and mediation-based methods for reconstructing causal gene networks in yeast. arXiv:2010.07417 https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.07417

Advisors: Adriaan Ludl , Tom Michoel

## Space-Time Linkage of Fish Distribution to Environmental Conditions

Conditions in the marine environment, such as, temperature and currents, influence the spatial distribution and migration patterns of marine species. Hence, understanding the link between environmental factors and fish behavior is crucial in predicting, e.g., how fish populations may respond to climate change. Deriving this link is challenging because it requires analysis of two types of datasets (i) large environmental (currents, temperature) datasets that vary in space and time, and (ii) sparse and sporadic spatial observations of fish populations.

Project goal

The primary goal of the project is to develop a methodology that helps predict how spatial distribution of two fish stocks (capelin and mackerel) change in response to variability in the physical marine environment (ocean currents and temperature). The information can also be used to optimize data collection by minimizing time spent in spatial sampling of the populations.

The project will focus on the use of machine learning and/or causal inference algorithms. As a first step, we use synthetic (fish and environmental) data from analytic models that couple the two data sources. Because the ‘truth’ is known, we can judge the efficiency and error margins of the methodologies. We then apply the methodologies to real world (empirical) observations.

Advisors: Tom Michoel , Sam Subbey .

## Towards precision medicine for cancer patient stratification

On average, a drug or a treatment is effective in only about half of patients who take it. This means patients need to try several until they find one that is effective at the cost of side effects associated with every treatment. The ultimate goal of precision medicine is to provide a treatment best suited for every individual. Sequencing technologies have now made genomics data available in abundance to be used towards this goal.

In this project we will specifically focus on cancer. Most cancer patients get a particular treatment based on the cancer type and the stage, though different individuals will react differently to a treatment. It is now well established that genetic mutations cause cancer growth and spreading and importantly, these mutations are different in individual patients. The aim of this project is use genomic data allow to better stratification of cancer patients, to predict the treatment most likely to work. Specifically, the project will use machine learning approach to integrate genomic data and build a classifier for stratification of cancer patients.

Advisor: Anagha Joshi

## Unraveling gene regulation from single cell data

Multi-cellularity is achieved by precise control of gene expression during development and differentiation and aberrations of this process leads to disease. A key regulatory process in gene regulation is at the transcriptional level where epigenetic and transcriptional regulators control the spatial and temporal expression of the target genes in response to environmental, developmental, and physiological cues obtained from a signalling cascade. The rapid advances in sequencing technology has now made it feasible to study this process by understanding the genomewide patterns of diverse epigenetic and transcription factors as well as at a single cell level.

Single cell RNA sequencing is highly important, particularly in cancer as it allows exploration of heterogenous tumor sample, obstructing therapeutic targeting which leads to poor survival. Despite huge clinical relevance and potential, analysis of single cell RNA-seq data is challenging. In this project, we will develop strategies to infer gene regulatory networks using network inference approaches (both supervised and un-supervised). It will be primarily tested on the single cell datasets in the context of cancer.

## Developing a Stress Granule Classifier

To carry out the multitude of functions 'expected' from a human cell, the cell employs a strategy of division of labour, whereby sub-cellular organelles carry out distinct functions. Thus we traditionally understand organelles as distinct units defined both functionally and physically with a distinct shape and size range. More recently a new class of organelles have been discovered that are assembled and dissolved on demand and are composed of liquid droplets or 'granules'. Granules show many properties characteristic of liquids, such as flow and wetting, but they can also assume many shapes and indeed also fluctuate in shape. One such liquid organelle is a stress granule (SG).

Stress granules are pro-survival organelles that assemble in response to cellular stress and important in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's. They are liquid or gel-like and can assume varying sizes and shapes depending on their cellular composition.

In a given experiment we are able to image the entire cell over a time series of 1000 frames; from which we extract a rough estimation of the size and shape of each granule. Our current method is susceptible to noise and a granule may be falsely rejected if the boundary is drawn poorly in a small majority of frames. Ideally, we would also like to identify potentially interesting features, such as voids, in the accepted granules.

We are interested in applying a machine learning approach to develop a descriptor for a 'classic' granule and furthermore classify them into different functional groups based on disease status of the cell. This method would be applied across thousands of granules imaged from control and disease cells. We are a multi-disciplinary group consisting of biologists, computational scientists and physicists.

Advisors: Sushma Grellscheid , Carl Jones

## Machine Learning based Hyperheuristic algorithm

Develop a Machine Learning based Hyper-heuristic algorithm to solve a pickup and delivery problem. A hyper-heuristic is a heuristics that choose heuristics automatically. Hyper-heuristic seeks to automate the process of selecting, combining, generating or adapting several simpler heuristics to efficiently solve computational search problems [Handbook of Metaheuristics]. There might be multiple heuristics for solving a problem. Heuristics have their own strength and weakness. In this project, we want to use machine-learning techniques to learn the strength and weakness of each heuristic while we are using them in an iterative search for finding high quality solutions and then use them intelligently for the rest of the search. Once a new information is gathered during the search the hyper-heuristic algorithm automatically adjusts the heuristics.

Advisor: Ahmad Hemmati

## Machine learning for solving satisfiability problems and applications in cryptanalysis

Advisor: Igor Semaev

## Hybrid modeling approaches for well drilling with Sintef

Several topics are available.

"Flow models" are first-principles models simulating the flow, temperature and pressure in a well being drilled. Our project is exploring "hybrid approaches" where these models are combined with machine learning models that either learn from time series data from flow model runs or from real-world measurements during drilling. The goal is to better detect drilling problems such as hole cleaning, make more accurate predictions and correctly learn from and interpret real-word data.

The "surrogate model" refers to a ML model which learns to mimic the flow model by learning from the model inputs and outputs. Use cases for surrogate models include model predictions where speed is favoured over accuracy and exploration of parameter space.

Surrogate models with active Learning

While it is possible to produce a nearly unlimited amount of training data by running the flow model, the surrogate model may still perform poorly if it lacks training data in the part of the parameter space it operates in or if it "forgets" areas of the parameter space by being fed too much data from a narrow range of parameters.

The goal of this thesis is to build a surrogate model (with any architecture) for some restricted parameter range and implement an active learning approach where the ML requests more model runs from the flow model in the parts of the parameter space where it is needed the most. The end result should be a surrogate model that is quick and performs acceptably well over the whole defined parameter range.

Surrogate models trained via adversarial learning

How best to train surrogate models from runs of the flow model is an open question. This master thesis would use the adversarial learning approach to build a surrogate model which to its "adversary" becomes indistinguishable from the output of an actual flow model run.

GPU-based Surrogate models for parameter search

While CPU speed largely stalled 20 years ago in terms of working frequency on single cores, multi-core CPUs and especially GPUs took off and delivered increases in computational power by parallelizing computations.

Modern machine learning such as deep learning takes advantage this boom in computing power by running on GPUs.

The SINTEF flow models in contrast, are software programs that runs on a CPU and does not happen to utilize multi-core CPU functionality. The model runs advance time-step by time-step and each time step relies on the results from the previous time step. The flow models are therefore fundamentally sequential and not well suited to massive parallelization.

It is however of interest to run different model runs in parallel, to explore parameter spaces. The use cases for this includes model calibration, problem detection and hypothesis generation and testing.

The task of this thesis is to implement an ML-based surrogate model in such a way that many surrogate model outputs can be produced at the same time using a single GPU. This will likely entail some trade off with model size and maybe some coding tricks.

Uncertainty estimates of hybrid predictions (Lots of room for creativity, might need to steer it more, needs good background literature)

When using predictions from a ML model trained on time series data, it is useful to know if it's accurate or should be trusted. The student is challenged to develop hybrid approaches that incorporates estimates of uncertainty. Components could include reporting variance from ML ensembles trained on a diversity of time series data, implementation of conformal predictions, analysis of training data parameter ranges vs current input, etc. The output should be a "traffic light signal" roughly indicating the accuracy of the predictions.

Transfer learning approaches

We're assuming an ML model is to be used for time series prediction

It is possible to train an ML on a wide range of scenarios in the flow models, but we expect that to perform well, the model also needs to see model runs representative of the type of well and drilling operation it will be used in. In this thesis the student implements a transfer learning approach, where the model is trained on general model runs and fine-tuned on a most representative data set.

(Bonus1: implementing one-shot learning, Bonus2: Using real-world data in the fine-tuning stage)

ML capable of reframing situations

When a human oversees an operation like well drilling, she has a mental model of the situation and new data such as pressure readings from the well is interpreted in light of this model. This is referred to as "framing" and is the normal mode of work. However, when a problem occurs, it becomes harder to reconcile the data with the mental model. The human then goes into "reframing", building a new mental model that includes the ongoing problem. This can be seen as a process of hypothesis generation and testing.

A computer model however, lacks re-framing. A flow model will keep making predictions under the assumption of no problems and a separate alarm system will use the deviation between the model predictions and reality to raise an alarm. This is in a sense how all alarm systems work, but it means that the human must discard the computer model as a tool at the same time as she's handling a crisis.

The student is given access to a flow model and a surrogate model which can learn from model runs both with and without hole cleaning and is challenged to develop a hybrid approach where the ML+flow model continuously performs hypothesis generation and testing and is able to "switch" into predictions of a hole cleaning problem and different remediations of this.

Advisor: Philippe Nivlet at Sintef together with advisor from UiB

## Explainable AI at Equinor

In the project Machine Teaching for XAI (see https://xai.w.uib.no ) a master thesis in collaboration between UiB and Equinor.

Advisor: One of Pekka Parviainen/Jan Arne Telle/Emmanuel Arrighi + Bjarte Johansen from Equinor.

## Explainable AI at Eviny

In the project Machine Teaching for XAI (see https://xai.w.uib.no ) a master thesis in collaboration between UiB and Eviny.

Advisor: One of Pekka Parviainen/Jan Arne Telle/Emmanuel Arrighi + Kristian Flikka from Eviny.

If you want to suggest your own topic, please contact Pekka Parviainen , Fabio Massimo Zennaro or Nello Blaser .

## The Future of AI Research: 20 Thesis Ideas for Undergraduate Students in Machine Learning and Deep Learning for 2023!

A comprehensive guide for crafting an original and innovative thesis in the field of ai..

By Aarafat Islam on 2023-01-11

“The beauty of machine learning is that it can be applied to any problem you want to solve, as long as you can provide the computer with enough examples.” — Andrew Ng

This article provides a list of 20 potential thesis ideas for an undergraduate program in machine learning and deep learning in 2023. Each thesis idea includes an introduction , which presents a brief overview of the topic and the research objectives . The ideas provided are related to different areas of machine learning and deep learning, such as computer vision, natural language processing, robotics, finance, drug discovery, and more. The article also includes explanations, examples, and conclusions for each thesis idea, which can help guide the research and provide a clear understanding of the potential contributions and outcomes of the proposed research. The article also emphasized the importance of originality and the need for proper citation in order to avoid plagiarism.

## 1. Investigating the use of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) in medical imaging: A deep learning approach to improve the accuracy of medical diagnoses.

Introduction: Medical imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. However, accurately interpreting medical images can be challenging, especially for less experienced doctors. This thesis aims to explore the use of GANs in medical imaging, in order to improve the accuracy of medical diagnoses.

## 2. Exploring the use of deep learning in natural language generation (NLG): An analysis of the current state-of-the-art and future potential.

Introduction: Natural language generation is an important field in natural language processing (NLP) that deals with creating human-like text automatically. Deep learning has shown promising results in NLP tasks such as machine translation, sentiment analysis, and question-answering. This thesis aims to explore the use of deep learning in NLG and analyze the current state-of-the-art models, as well as potential future developments.

## 3. Development and evaluation of deep reinforcement learning (RL) for robotic navigation and control.

Introduction: Robotic navigation and control are challenging tasks, which require a high degree of intelligence and adaptability. Deep RL has shown promising results in various robotics tasks, such as robotic arm control, autonomous navigation, and manipulation. This thesis aims to develop and evaluate a deep RL-based approach for robotic navigation and control and evaluate its performance in various environments and tasks.

## 4. Investigating the use of deep learning for drug discovery and development.

Introduction: Drug discovery and development is a time-consuming and expensive process, which often involves high failure rates. Deep learning has been used to improve various tasks in bioinformatics and biotechnology, such as protein structure prediction and gene expression analysis. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for drug discovery and development and examine its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the drug development process.

## 5. Comparison of deep learning and traditional machine learning methods for anomaly detection in time series data.

Introduction: Anomaly detection in time series data is a challenging task, which is important in various fields such as finance, healthcare, and manufacturing. Deep learning methods have been used to improve anomaly detection in time series data, while traditional machine learning methods have been widely used as well. This thesis aims to compare deep learning and traditional machine learning methods for anomaly detection in time series data and examine their respective strengths and weaknesses.

Photo by Joanna Kosinska on Unsplash

## 6. Use of deep transfer learning in speech recognition and synthesis.

Introduction: Speech recognition and synthesis are areas of natural language processing that focus on converting spoken language to text and vice versa. Transfer learning has been widely used in deep learning-based speech recognition and synthesis systems to improve their performance by reusing the features learned from other tasks. This thesis aims to investigate the use of transfer learning in speech recognition and synthesis and how it improves the performance of the system in comparison to traditional methods.

## 7. The use of deep learning for financial prediction.

Introduction: Financial prediction is a challenging task that requires a high degree of intelligence and adaptability, especially in the field of stock market prediction. Deep learning has shown promising results in various financial prediction tasks, such as stock price prediction and credit risk analysis. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for financial prediction and examine its potential to improve the accuracy of financial forecasting.

## 8. Investigating the use of deep learning for computer vision in agriculture.

Introduction: Computer vision has the potential to revolutionize the field of agriculture by improving crop monitoring, precision farming, and yield prediction. Deep learning has been used to improve various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, semantic segmentation, and image classification. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for computer vision in agriculture and examine its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of crop monitoring and precision farming.

## 9. Development and evaluation of deep learning models for generative design in engineering and architecture.

Introduction: Generative design is a powerful tool in engineering and architecture that can help optimize designs and reduce human error. Deep learning has been used to improve various generative design tasks, such as design optimization and form generation. This thesis aims to develop and evaluate deep learning models for generative design in engineering and architecture and examine their potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the design process.

## 10. Investigating the use of deep learning for natural language understanding.

Introduction: Natural language understanding is a complex task of natural language processing that involves extracting meaning from text. Deep learning has been used to improve various NLP tasks, such as machine translation, sentiment analysis, and question-answering. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for natural language understanding and examine its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of natural language understanding systems.

Photo by UX Indonesia on Unsplash

## 11. Comparing deep learning and traditional machine learning methods for image compression.

Introduction: Image compression is an important task in image processing and computer vision. It enables faster data transmission and storage of image files. Deep learning methods have been used to improve image compression, while traditional machine learning methods have been widely used as well. This thesis aims to compare deep learning and traditional machine learning methods for image compression and examine their respective strengths and weaknesses.

## 12. Using deep learning for sentiment analysis in social media.

Introduction: Sentiment analysis in social media is an important task that can help businesses and organizations understand their customers’ opinions and feedback. Deep learning has been used to improve sentiment analysis in social media, by training models on large datasets of social media text. This thesis aims to use deep learning for sentiment analysis in social media, and evaluate its performance against traditional machine learning methods.

## 13. Investigating the use of deep learning for image generation.

Introduction: Image generation is a task in computer vision that involves creating new images from scratch or modifying existing images. Deep learning has been used to improve various image generation tasks, such as super-resolution, style transfer, and face generation. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for image generation and examine its potential to improve the quality and diversity of generated images.

## 14. Development and evaluation of deep learning models for anomaly detection in cybersecurity.

Introduction: Anomaly detection in cybersecurity is an important task that can help detect and prevent cyber-attacks. Deep learning has been used to improve various anomaly detection tasks, such as intrusion detection and malware detection. This thesis aims to develop and evaluate deep learning models for anomaly detection in cybersecurity and examine their potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of cybersecurity systems.

## 15. Investigating the use of deep learning for natural language summarization.

Introduction: Natural language summarization is an important task in natural language processing that involves creating a condensed version of a text that preserves its main meaning. Deep learning has been used to improve various natural language summarization tasks, such as document summarization and headline generation. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for natural language summarization and examine its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of natural language summarization systems.

Photo by Windows on Unsplash

## 16. Development and evaluation of deep learning models for facial expression recognition.

Introduction: Facial expression recognition is an important task in computer vision and has many practical applications, such as human-computer interaction, emotion recognition, and psychological studies. Deep learning has been used to improve facial expression recognition, by training models on large datasets of images. This thesis aims to develop and evaluate deep learning models for facial expression recognition and examine their performance against traditional machine learning methods.

## 17. Investigating the use of deep learning for generative models in music and audio.

Introduction: Music and audio synthesis is an important task in audio processing, which has many practical applications, such as music generation and speech synthesis. Deep learning has been used to improve generative models for music and audio, by training models on large datasets of audio data. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for generative models in music and audio and examine its potential to improve the quality and diversity of generated audio.

## 18. Study the comparison of deep learning models with traditional algorithms for anomaly detection in network traffic.

Introduction: Anomaly detection in network traffic is an important task that can help detect and prevent cyber-attacks. Deep learning models have been used for this task, and traditional methods such as clustering and rule-based systems are widely used as well. This thesis aims to compare deep learning models with traditional algorithms for anomaly detection in network traffic and analyze the trade-offs between the models in terms of accuracy and scalability.

## 19. Investigating the use of deep learning for improving recommender systems.

Introduction: Recommender systems are widely used in many applications such as online shopping, music streaming, and movie streaming. Deep learning has been used to improve the performance of recommender systems, by training models on large datasets of user-item interactions. This thesis aims to investigate the use of deep learning for improving recommender systems and compare its performance with traditional content-based and collaborative filtering approaches.

## 20. Development and evaluation of deep learning models for multi-modal data analysis.

Introduction: Multi-modal data analysis is the task of analyzing and understanding data from multiple sources such as text, images, and audio. Deep learning has been used to improve multi-modal data analysis, by training models on large datasets of multi-modal data. This thesis aims to develop and evaluate deep learning models for multi-modal data analysis and analyze their potential to improve performance in comparison to single-modal models.

I hope that this article has provided you with a useful guide for your thesis research in machine learning and deep learning. Remember to conduct a thorough literature review and to include proper citations in your work, as well as to be original in your research to avoid plagiarism. I wish you all the best of luck with your thesis and your research endeavors!

## Continue Learning

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## Machine Learning - CMU

## PhD Dissertations

[all are .pdf files].

Robust Machine Learning: Detection, Evaluation and Adaptation Under Distribution Shift Saurabh Garg, 2024

UNDERSTANDING, FORMALLY CHARACTERIZING, AND ROBUSTLY HANDLING REAL-WORLD DISTRIBUTION SHIFT Elan Rosenfeld, 2024

Representing Time: Towards Pragmatic Multivariate Time Series Modeling Cristian Ignacio Challu, 2024

Foundations of Multisensory Artificial Intelligence Paul Pu Liang, 2024

Advancing Model-Based Reinforcement Learning with Applications in Nuclear Fusion Ian Char, 2024

Learning Models that Match Jacob Tyo, 2024

Improving Human Integration across the Machine Learning Pipeline Charvi Rastogi, 2024

Reliable and Practical Machine Learning for Dynamic Healthcare Settings Helen Zhou, 2023

Automatic customization of large-scale spiking network models to neuronal population activity (unavailable) Shenghao Wu, 2023

Estimation of BVk functions from scattered data (unavailable) Addison J. Hu, 2023

Rethinking object categorization in computer vision (unavailable) Jayanth Koushik, 2023

Advances in Statistical Gene Networks Jinjin Tian, 2023 Post-hoc calibration without distributional assumptions Chirag Gupta, 2023

The Role of Noise, Proxies, and Dynamics in Algorithmic Fairness Nil-Jana Akpinar, 2023

Collaborative learning by leveraging siloed data Sebastian Caldas, 2023

Modeling Epidemiological Time Series Aaron Rumack, 2023

Human-Centered Machine Learning: A Statistical and Algorithmic Perspective Leqi Liu, 2023

Uncertainty Quantification under Distribution Shifts Aleksandr Podkopaev, 2023

Probabilistic Reinforcement Learning: Using Data to Define Desired Outcomes, and Inferring How to Get There Benjamin Eysenbach, 2023

Comparing Forecasters and Abstaining Classifiers Yo Joong Choe, 2023

Using Task Driven Methods to Uncover Representations of Human Vision and Semantics Aria Yuan Wang, 2023

Data-driven Decisions - An Anomaly Detection Perspective Shubhranshu Shekhar, 2023

Applied Mathematics of the Future Kin G. Olivares, 2023

METHODS AND APPLICATIONS OF EXPLAINABLE MACHINE LEARNING Joon Sik Kim, 2023

NEURAL REASONING FOR QUESTION ANSWERING Haitian Sun, 2023

Principled Machine Learning for Societally Consequential Decision Making Amanda Coston, 2023

Long term brain dynamics extend cognitive neuroscience to timescales relevant for health and physiology Maxwell B. Wang, 2023

Long term brain dynamics extend cognitive neuroscience to timescales relevant for health and physiology Darby M. Losey, 2023

Calibrated Conditional Density Models and Predictive Inference via Local Diagnostics David Zhao, 2023

Towards an Application-based Pipeline for Explainability Gregory Plumb, 2022

Objective Criteria for Explainable Machine Learning Chih-Kuan Yeh, 2022

Making Scientific Peer Review Scientific Ivan Stelmakh, 2022

Facets of regularization in high-dimensional learning: Cross-validation, risk monotonization, and model complexity Pratik Patil, 2022

Active Robot Perception using Programmable Light Curtains Siddharth Ancha, 2022

Strategies for Black-Box and Multi-Objective Optimization Biswajit Paria, 2022

Unifying State and Policy-Level Explanations for Reinforcement Learning Nicholay Topin, 2022

Sensor Fusion Frameworks for Nowcasting Maria Jahja, 2022

Equilibrium Approaches to Modern Deep Learning Shaojie Bai, 2022

Towards General Natural Language Understanding with Probabilistic Worldbuilding Abulhair Saparov, 2022

Applications of Point Process Modeling to Spiking Neurons (Unavailable) Yu Chen, 2021

Neural variability: structure, sources, control, and data augmentation Akash Umakantha, 2021

Structure and time course of neural population activity during learning Jay Hennig, 2021

Cross-view Learning with Limited Supervision Yao-Hung Hubert Tsai, 2021

Meta Reinforcement Learning through Memory Emilio Parisotto, 2021

Learning Embodied Agents with Scalably-Supervised Reinforcement Learning Lisa Lee, 2021

Learning to Predict and Make Decisions under Distribution Shift Yifan Wu, 2021

Statistical Game Theory Arun Sai Suggala, 2021

Towards Knowledge-capable AI: Agents that See, Speak, Act and Know Kenneth Marino, 2021

Learning and Reasoning with Fast Semidefinite Programming and Mixing Methods Po-Wei Wang, 2021

Bridging Language in Machines with Language in the Brain Mariya Toneva, 2021

Curriculum Learning Otilia Stretcu, 2021

Principles of Learning in Multitask Settings: A Probabilistic Perspective Maruan Al-Shedivat, 2021

Towards Robust and Resilient Machine Learning Adarsh Prasad, 2021

Towards Training AI Agents with All Types of Experiences: A Unified ML Formalism Zhiting Hu, 2021

Building Intelligent Autonomous Navigation Agents Devendra Chaplot, 2021

Learning to See by Moving: Self-supervising 3D Scene Representations for Perception, Control, and Visual Reasoning Hsiao-Yu Fish Tung, 2021

Statistical Astrophysics: From Extrasolar Planets to the Large-scale Structure of the Universe Collin Politsch, 2020

Causal Inference with Complex Data Structures and Non-Standard Effects Kwhangho Kim, 2020

Networks, Point Processes, and Networks of Point Processes Neil Spencer, 2020

Dissecting neural variability using population recordings, network models, and neurofeedback (Unavailable) Ryan Williamson, 2020

Predicting Health and Safety: Essays in Machine Learning for Decision Support in the Public Sector Dylan Fitzpatrick, 2020

Towards a Unified Framework for Learning and Reasoning Han Zhao, 2020

Learning DAGs with Continuous Optimization Xun Zheng, 2020

Machine Learning and Multiagent Preferences Ritesh Noothigattu, 2020

Learning and Decision Making from Diverse Forms of Information Yichong Xu, 2020

Towards Data-Efficient Machine Learning Qizhe Xie, 2020

Change modeling for understanding our world and the counterfactual one(s) William Herlands, 2020

Machine Learning in High-Stakes Settings: Risks and Opportunities Maria De-Arteaga, 2020

Data Decomposition for Constrained Visual Learning Calvin Murdock, 2020

Structured Sparse Regression Methods for Learning from High-Dimensional Genomic Data Micol Marchetti-Bowick, 2020

Towards Efficient Automated Machine Learning Liam Li, 2020

LEARNING COLLECTIONS OF FUNCTIONS Emmanouil Antonios Platanios, 2020

Provable, structured, and efficient methods for robustness of deep networks to adversarial examples Eric Wong , 2020

Reconstructing and Mining Signals: Algorithms and Applications Hyun Ah Song, 2020

Probabilistic Single Cell Lineage Tracing Chieh Lin, 2020

Graphical network modeling of phase coupling in brain activity (unavailable) Josue Orellana, 2019

Strategic Exploration in Reinforcement Learning - New Algorithms and Learning Guarantees Christoph Dann, 2019 Learning Generative Models using Transformations Chun-Liang Li, 2019

Estimating Probability Distributions and their Properties Shashank Singh, 2019

Post-Inference Methods for Scalable Probabilistic Modeling and Sequential Decision Making Willie Neiswanger, 2019

Accelerating Text-as-Data Research in Computational Social Science Dallas Card, 2019

Multi-view Relationships for Analytics and Inference Eric Lei, 2019

Information flow in networks based on nonstationary multivariate neural recordings Natalie Klein, 2019

Competitive Analysis for Machine Learning & Data Science Michael Spece, 2019

The When, Where and Why of Human Memory Retrieval Qiong Zhang, 2019

Towards Effective and Efficient Learning at Scale Adams Wei Yu, 2019

Towards Literate Artificial Intelligence Mrinmaya Sachan, 2019

Learning Gene Networks Underlying Clinical Phenotypes Under SNP Perturbations From Genome-Wide Data Calvin McCarter, 2019

Unified Models for Dynamical Systems Carlton Downey, 2019

Anytime Prediction and Learning for the Balance between Computation and Accuracy Hanzhang Hu, 2019

Statistical and Computational Properties of Some "User-Friendly" Methods for High-Dimensional Estimation Alnur Ali, 2019

Nonparametric Methods with Total Variation Type Regularization Veeranjaneyulu Sadhanala, 2019

New Advances in Sparse Learning, Deep Networks, and Adversarial Learning: Theory and Applications Hongyang Zhang, 2019

Gradient Descent for Non-convex Problems in Modern Machine Learning Simon Shaolei Du, 2019

Selective Data Acquisition in Learning and Decision Making Problems Yining Wang, 2019

Anomaly Detection in Graphs and Time Series: Algorithms and Applications Bryan Hooi, 2019

Neural dynamics and interactions in the human ventral visual pathway Yuanning Li, 2018

Tuning Hyperparameters without Grad Students: Scaling up Bandit Optimisation Kirthevasan Kandasamy, 2018

Teaching Machines to Classify from Natural Language Interactions Shashank Srivastava, 2018

Statistical Inference for Geometric Data Jisu Kim, 2018

Representation Learning @ Scale Manzil Zaheer, 2018

Diversity-promoting and Large-scale Machine Learning for Healthcare Pengtao Xie, 2018

Distribution and Histogram (DIsH) Learning Junier Oliva, 2018

Stress Detection for Keystroke Dynamics Shing-Hon Lau, 2018

Sublinear-Time Learning and Inference for High-Dimensional Models Enxu Yan, 2018

Neural population activity in the visual cortex: Statistical methods and application Benjamin Cowley, 2018

Efficient Methods for Prediction and Control in Partially Observable Environments Ahmed Hefny, 2018

Learning with Staleness Wei Dai, 2018

Statistical Approach for Functionally Validating Transcription Factor Bindings Using Population SNP and Gene Expression Data Jing Xiang, 2017

New Paradigms and Optimality Guarantees in Statistical Learning and Estimation Yu-Xiang Wang, 2017

Dynamic Question Ordering: Obtaining Useful Information While Reducing User Burden Kirstin Early, 2017

New Optimization Methods for Modern Machine Learning Sashank J. Reddi, 2017

Active Search with Complex Actions and Rewards Yifei Ma, 2017

Why Machine Learning Works George D. Montañez , 2017

Source-Space Analyses in MEG/EEG and Applications to Explore Spatio-temporal Neural Dynamics in Human Vision Ying Yang , 2017

Computational Tools for Identification and Analysis of Neuronal Population Activity Pengcheng Zhou, 2016

Expressive Collaborative Music Performance via Machine Learning Gus (Guangyu) Xia, 2016

Supervision Beyond Manual Annotations for Learning Visual Representations Carl Doersch, 2016

Exploring Weakly Labeled Data Across the Noise-Bias Spectrum Robert W. H. Fisher, 2016

Optimizing Optimization: Scalable Convex Programming with Proximal Operators Matt Wytock, 2016

Combining Neural Population Recordings: Theory and Application William Bishop, 2015

Discovering Compact and Informative Structures through Data Partitioning Madalina Fiterau-Brostean, 2015

Machine Learning in Space and Time Seth R. Flaxman, 2015

The Time and Location of Natural Reading Processes in the Brain Leila Wehbe, 2015

Shape-Constrained Estimation in High Dimensions Min Xu, 2015

Spectral Probabilistic Modeling and Applications to Natural Language Processing Ankur Parikh, 2015 Computational and Statistical Advances in Testing and Learning Aaditya Kumar Ramdas, 2015

Corpora and Cognition: The Semantic Composition of Adjectives and Nouns in the Human Brain Alona Fyshe, 2015

Learning Statistical Features of Scene Images Wooyoung Lee, 2014

Towards Scalable Analysis of Images and Videos Bin Zhao, 2014

Statistical Text Analysis for Social Science Brendan T. O'Connor, 2014

Modeling Large Social Networks in Context Qirong Ho, 2014

Semi-Cooperative Learning in Smart Grid Agents Prashant P. Reddy, 2013

On Learning from Collective Data Liang Xiong, 2013

Exploiting Non-sequence Data in Dynamic Model Learning Tzu-Kuo Huang, 2013

Mathematical Theories of Interaction with Oracles Liu Yang, 2013

Short-Sighted Probabilistic Planning Felipe W. Trevizan, 2013

Statistical Models and Algorithms for Studying Hand and Finger Kinematics and their Neural Mechanisms Lucia Castellanos, 2013

Approximation Algorithms and New Models for Clustering and Learning Pranjal Awasthi, 2013

Uncovering Structure in High-Dimensions: Networks and Multi-task Learning Problems Mladen Kolar, 2013

Learning with Sparsity: Structures, Optimization and Applications Xi Chen, 2013

GraphLab: A Distributed Abstraction for Large Scale Machine Learning Yucheng Low, 2013

Graph Structured Normal Means Inference James Sharpnack, 2013 (Joint Statistics & ML PhD)

Probabilistic Models for Collecting, Analyzing, and Modeling Expression Data Hai-Son Phuoc Le, 2013

Learning Large-Scale Conditional Random Fields Joseph K. Bradley, 2013

New Statistical Applications for Differential Privacy Rob Hall, 2013 (Joint Statistics & ML PhD)

Parallel and Distributed Systems for Probabilistic Reasoning Joseph Gonzalez, 2012

Spectral Approaches to Learning Predictive Representations Byron Boots, 2012

Attribute Learning using Joint Human and Machine Computation Edith L. M. Law, 2012

Statistical Methods for Studying Genetic Variation in Populations Suyash Shringarpure, 2012

Data Mining Meets HCI: Making Sense of Large Graphs Duen Horng (Polo) Chau, 2012

Learning with Limited Supervision by Input and Output Coding Yi Zhang, 2012

Target Sequence Clustering Benjamin Shih, 2011

Nonparametric Learning in High Dimensions Han Liu, 2010 (Joint Statistics & ML PhD)

Structural Analysis of Large Networks: Observations and Applications Mary McGlohon, 2010

Modeling Purposeful Adaptive Behavior with the Principle of Maximum Causal Entropy Brian D. Ziebart, 2010

Tractable Algorithms for Proximity Search on Large Graphs Purnamrita Sarkar, 2010

Rare Category Analysis Jingrui He, 2010

Coupled Semi-Supervised Learning Andrew Carlson, 2010

Fast Algorithms for Querying and Mining Large Graphs Hanghang Tong, 2009

Efficient Matrix Models for Relational Learning Ajit Paul Singh, 2009

Exploiting Domain and Task Regularities for Robust Named Entity Recognition Andrew O. Arnold, 2009

Theoretical Foundations of Active Learning Steve Hanneke, 2009

Generalized Learning Factors Analysis: Improving Cognitive Models with Machine Learning Hao Cen, 2009

Detecting Patterns of Anomalies Kaustav Das, 2009

Dynamics of Large Networks Jurij Leskovec, 2008

Computational Methods for Analyzing and Modeling Gene Regulation Dynamics Jason Ernst, 2008

Stacked Graphical Learning Zhenzhen Kou, 2007

Actively Learning Specific Function Properties with Applications to Statistical Inference Brent Bryan, 2007

Approximate Inference, Structure Learning and Feature Estimation in Markov Random Fields Pradeep Ravikumar, 2007

Scalable Graphical Models for Social Networks Anna Goldenberg, 2007

Measure Concentration of Strongly Mixing Processes with Applications Leonid Kontorovich, 2007

Tools for Graph Mining Deepayan Chakrabarti, 2005

Automatic Discovery of Latent Variable Models Ricardo Silva, 2005

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## Thesis on Machine Learning Methods and Its Applications

2021, IJRASET

In the 1950s, the concept of machine learning was discovered and developed as a subfield of artificial intelligence. However, there were no significant developments or research on it until this decade. Typically, this field of study has developed and expanded since the 1990s. It is a field that will continue to develop in the future due to the difficulty of analysing and processing data as the number of records and documents increases. Due to the increasing data, machine learning focuses on finding the best model for the new data that takes into account all the previous data. Therefore, machine learning research will continue in correlation with this increasing data. This research focuses on the history of machine learning, the methods of machine learning, its applications, and the research that has been conducted on this topic. Our study aims to give researchers a deeper understanding of machine learning, an area of research that is becoming much more popular today, and its applications.

## Related Papers

Manisha More

Machine learning is the fastest growing areas of computer science. It has the ability to lets the computer to create the program. It is a subset of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and consists of the more advanced techniques and models that enable computers to figure things out from the data and deliver. It is a field of learning and broadly divided into supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. There are many fields where the Machine learning algorithms are used. The objective of the paper is to represent the ML objectives, explore the various ML techniques and algorithms with its applications in the various fields from published papers, workshop materials & material collected from books and material available online on the World Wide Web.

pankaj verma

The field of machine learning is introduced at a conceptual level. The main goal of machine learning is how computers automatically learn without any human invention or assistance so that they can adjust their action accordingly. We are discussing mainly three types of algorithms in machine learning and also discussed ML's features and applications in detail. Supervised ML, In this typeof algorithm, the machine applies what it has learned in its past to new data, in which they use labeled examples, so that they predict future events. Unsupervised ML studies how systems can infer a function, so that they can describe a hidden structure from unlabeled data. Reinforcement ML, is a type of learning method, which interacts with its environment, produces action, as well as discovers errors and rewards.

Journal of Advances in Mathematical & Computational Science. Vol 10, No.3. Pp 1 – 14.

Jerry Sarumi

Machine learning and associated algorithms occupies a pride of place in the execution of automation in the field of computing and its application to addressing contemporary and human-centred problems such as predictions, evaluations, deductions, analytics and analysis. This paper presents types of data and machine learning algorithms in a broader sense. We briefly discuss and explain different machine learning algorithms and real-world application areas based on machine learning. We highlight several research issues and potential future directions

IJESRT Journal

Machine learning [1], a branch of artificial intelligence, that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed, means it gives system the ability to learn from data. There are two types of learning techniques: supervised learning and unsupervised learning [2]. This paper summarizes the recent trends of machine learning research.

International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET)

Dr. Manish Kumar Singh

Machine learning has become one of the most envisaged areas of research and development field in modern times. But the area of research related to machine learning is not new. The term machine learning was coined by Arthur Samuel in 1952 and since then lots of developments have been made in this field. The data scientists and the machine learning enthusiasts have developed myriad algorithms from time to time to let the benefit of machine learning reach to each and every field of human endeavors. This paper is an effort to put light on some of the most prominent algorithms that have been used in machine learning field on frequent basis since the time of its inception. Further, we will analyze their area of applications.

International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration

Akash Badone

International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology

vishal bari

Today, huge amounts of data are available everywhere. Therefore, analyzing this data is very important to derive useful information from it and develop an algorithm based on this analysis. This can be achieved through data mining and machine learning. Machine learning is an essential part of artificial intelligence used to design algorithms based on data trends and past relationships between data. Machine learning is used in a variety of areas such as bioinformatics, intrusion detection, information retrieval, games, marketing, malware detection, and image decoding. This paper shows the work of various authors in the field of machine learning in various application areas.

Ioannis Vlahavas

IJRASET Publication

This paper describes essential points of machine learning and its application. It seamlessly turns around and teach about the pros and cons of the ML. As well as it covers the real-life application where the machine learning is being used. Different types of machine learning and its algorithms. This paper is giving the detail knowledge about the different algorithms used in machine learning with their applications. There is brief explanation about the Weather Prediction application using the machine learning and also the comparison between various machine learning algorithms used by various researchers for weather prediction.

Sumeet Agarwal

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## Open Topics

We offer multiple Bachelor/Master theses, Guided Research projects and IDPs in the area of data mining/machine learning. A non-exhaustive list of open topics is listed below.

If you are interested in a thesis or a guided research project, please send your CV and transcript of records to Prof. Stephan Günnemann via email and we will arrange a meeting to talk about the potential topics.

## Graph Neural Networks for Spatial Transcriptomics

Type: Master's Thesis

Prerequisites:

- Strong machine learning knowledge
- Proficiency with Python and deep learning frameworks (PyTorch, TensorFlow, JAX)
- Knowledge of graph neural networks (e.g., GCN, MPNN)
- Optional: Knowledge of bioinformatics and genomics

Description:

Spatial transcriptomics is a cutting-edge field at the intersection of genomics and spatial analysis, aiming to understand gene expression patterns within the context of tissue architecture. Our project focuses on leveraging graph neural networks (GNNs) to unlock the full potential of spatial transcriptomic data. Unlike traditional methods, GNNs can effectively capture the intricate spatial relationships between cells, enabling more accurate modeling and interpretation of gene expression dynamics across tissues. We seek motivated students to explore novel GNN architectures tailored for spatial transcriptomics, with a particular emphasis on addressing challenges such as spatial heterogeneity, cell-cell interactions, and spatially varying gene expression patterns.

Contact : Filippo Guerranti , Alessandro Palma

References:

- Cell clustering for spatial transcriptomics data with graph neural network
- Unsupervised spatially embedded deep representation of spatial transcriptomics
- SpaGCN: Integrating gene expression, spatial location and histology to identify spatial domains and spatially variable genes by graph convolutional network
- DeepST: identifying spatial domains in spatial transcriptomics by deep learning
- Deciphering spatial domains from spatially resolved transcriptomics with an adaptive graph attention auto-encoder

GCNG: graph convolutional networks for inferring gene interaction from spatial transcriptomics data

## Generative Models for Drug Discovery

Type: Mater Thesis / Guided Research

- Proficiency with Python and deep learning frameworks (PyTorch or TensorFlow)
- Knowledge of graph neural networks (e.g. GCN, MPNN)
- No formal education in chemistry, physics or biology needed!

Effectively designing molecular geometries is essential to advancing pharmaceutical innovations, a domain which has experienced great attention through the success of generative models. These models promise a more efficient exploration of the vast chemical space and generation of novel compounds with specific properties by leveraging their learned representations, potentially leading to the discovery of molecules with unique properties that would otherwise go undiscovered. Our topics lie at the intersection of generative models like diffusion/flow matching models and graph representation learning, e.g., graph neural networks. The focus of our projects can be model development with an emphasis on downstream tasks ( e.g., diffusion guidance at inference time ) and a better understanding of the limitations of existing models.

Contact : Johanna Sommer , Leon Hetzel

Equivariant Diffusion for Molecule Generation in 3D

Equivariant Flow Matching with Hybrid Probability Transport for 3D Molecule Generation

Structure-based Drug Design with Equivariant Diffusion Models

## Efficient Machine Learning: Pruning, Quantization, Distillation, and More

Type: Master's Thesis / Guided Research / Hiwi

- Strong knowledge in machine learning
- Proficiency with Python and deep learning frameworks (TensorFlow or PyTorch)

The efficiency of machine learning algorithms is commonly evaluated by looking at target performance, speed and memory footprint metrics. Reduce the costs associated to these metrics is of primary importance for real-world applications with limited ressources (e.g. embedded systems, real-time predictions). In this project, you will investigate solutions to improve the efficiency of machine leanring models by looking at multiple techniques like pruning, quantization, distillation, and more.

Contact: Bertrand Charpentier

- The Efficiency Misnomer
- A Gradient Flow Framework for Analyzing Network Pruning
- Distilling the Knowledge in a Neural Network
- A Survey of Quantization Methods for Efficient Neural Network Inference

## Deep Generative Models

Type: Master Thesis / Guided Research

- Strong machine learning and probability theory knowledge
- Knowledge of generative models and their basics (e.g., Normalizing Flows, Diffusion Models, VAE)
- Optional: Neural ODEs/SDEs, Optimal Transport, Measure Theory

With recent advances, such as Diffusion Models, Transformers, Normalizing Flows, Flow Matching, etc., the field of generative models has gained significant attention in the machine learning and artificial intelligence research community. However, many problems and questions remain open, and the application to complex data domains such as graphs, time series, point processes, and sets is often non-trivial. We are interested in supervising motivated students to explore and extend the capabilities of state-of-the-art generative models for various data domains.

Contact : Marcel Kollovieh , David Lüdke

- Flow Matching for Generative Modeling
- Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes
- Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Models
- Structured Denoising Diffusion Models in Discrete State-Spaces

## Active Learning for Multi Agent 3D Object Detection

Type: Master's Thesis Industrial partner: BMW

Prerequisites:

- Strong knowledge in machine learning
- Knowledge in Object Detection
- Excellent programming skills
- Proficiency with Python and deep learning frameworks (TensorFlow or PyTorch)

Description:

In autonomous driving, state-of-the-art deep neural networks are used for perception tasks like for example 3D object detection. To provide promising results, these networks often require a lot of complex annotation data for training. These annotations are often costly and redundant. Active learning is used to select the most informative samples for annotation and cover a dataset with as less annotated data as possible.

The objective is to explore active learning approaches for 3D object detection using combined uncertainty and diversity based methods.

Contact: Sebastian Schmidt

References:

- Exploring Diversity-based Active Learning for 3D Object Detection in Autonomous Driving
- Efficient Uncertainty Estimation for Semantic Segmentation in Videos
- KECOR: Kernel Coding Rate Maximization for Active 3D Object Detection
- Towards Open World Active Learning for 3D Object Detection

## Graph Neural Networks

Type: Master's thesis / Bachelor's thesis / guided research

- Knowledge of graph/network theory

Graph neural networks (GNNs) have recently achieved great successes in a wide variety of applications, such as chemistry, reinforcement learning, knowledge graphs, traffic networks, or computer vision. These models leverage graph data by updating node representations based on messages passed between nodes connected by edges, or by transforming node representation using spectral graph properties. These approaches are very effective, but many theoretical aspects of these models remain unclear and there are many possible extensions to improve GNNs and go beyond the nodes' direct neighbors and simple message aggregation.

Contact: Simon Geisler

- Semi-supervised classification with graph convolutional networks
- Relational inductive biases, deep learning, and graph networks
- Diffusion Improves Graph Learning
- Weisfeiler and leman go neural: Higher-order graph neural networks
- Reliable Graph Neural Networks via Robust Aggregation

## Physics-aware Graph Neural Networks

Type: Master's thesis / guided research

- Proficiency with Python and deep learning frameworks (JAX or PyTorch)
- Knowledge of graph neural networks (e.g. GCN, MPNN, SchNet)
- Optional: Knowledge of machine learning on molecules and quantum chemistry

Deep learning models, especially graph neural networks (GNNs), have recently achieved great successes in predicting quantum mechanical properties of molecules. There is a vast amount of applications for these models, such as finding the best method of chemical synthesis or selecting candidates for drugs, construction materials, batteries, or solar cells. However, GNNs have only been proposed in recent years and there remain many open questions about how to best represent and leverage quantum mechanical properties and methods.

Contact: Nicholas Gao

- Directional Message Passing for Molecular Graphs
- Neural message passing for quantum chemistry
- Learning to Simulate Complex Physics with Graph Network
- Ab initio solution of the many-electron Schrödinger equation with deep neural networks
- Ab-Initio Potential Energy Surfaces by Pairing GNNs with Neural Wave Functions
- Tensor field networks: Rotation- and translation-equivariant neural networks for 3D point clouds

## Robustness Verification for Deep Classifiers

Type: Master's thesis / Guided research

- Strong machine learning knowledge (at least equivalent to IN2064 plus an advanced course on deep learning)
- Strong background in mathematical optimization (preferably combined with Machine Learning setting)
- Proficiency with python and deep learning frameworks (Pytorch or Tensorflow)
- (Preferred) Knowledge of training techniques to obtain classifiers that are robust against small perturbations in data

Description : Recent work shows that deep classifiers suffer under presence of adversarial examples: misclassified points that are very close to the training samples or even visually indistinguishable from them. This undesired behaviour constraints possibilities of deployment in safety critical scenarios for promising classification methods based on neural nets. Therefore, new training methods should be proposed that promote (or preferably ensure) robust behaviour of the classifier around training samples.

Contact: Aleksei Kuvshinov

References (Background):

- Intriguing properties of neural networks
- Explaining and harnessing adversarial examples
- SoK: Certified Robustness for Deep Neural Networks
- Certified Adversarial Robustness via Randomized Smoothing
- Formal guarantees on the robustness of a classifier against adversarial manipulation
- Towards deep learning models resistant to adversarial attacks
- Provable defenses against adversarial examples via the convex outer adversarial polytope
- Certified defenses against adversarial examples
- Lipschitz-margin training: Scalable certification of perturbation invariance for deep neural networks

## Uncertainty Estimation in Deep Learning

Type: Master's Thesis / Guided Research

- Strong knowledge in probability theory

Safe prediction is a key feature in many intelligent systems. Classically, Machine Learning models compute output predictions regardless of the underlying uncertainty of the encountered situations. In contrast, aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty bring knowledge about undecidable and uncommon situations. The uncertainty view can be a substantial help to detect and explain unsafe predictions, and therefore make ML systems more robust. The goal of this project is to improve the uncertainty estimation in ML models in various types of task.

Contact: Tom Wollschläger , Dominik Fuchsgruber , Bertrand Charpentier

- Can You Trust Your Model’s Uncertainty? Evaluating Predictive Uncertainty Under Dataset Shift
- Predictive Uncertainty Estimation via Prior Networks
- Posterior Network: Uncertainty Estimation without OOD samples via Density-based Pseudo-Counts
- Evidential Deep Learning to Quantify Classification Uncertainty
- Weight Uncertainty in Neural Networks

## Hierarchies in Deep Learning

Type: Master's Thesis / Guided Research

Multi-scale structures are ubiquitous in real life datasets. As an example, phylogenetic nomenclature naturally reveals a hierarchical classification of species based on their historical evolutions. Learning multi-scale structures can help to exhibit natural and meaningful organizations in the data and also to obtain compact data representation. The goal of this project is to leverage multi-scale structures to improve speed, performances and understanding of Deep Learning models.

Contact: Marcel Kollovieh , Bertrand Charpentier

- Tree Sampling Divergence: An Information-Theoretic Metricfor Hierarchical Graph Clustering
- Hierarchical Graph Representation Learning with Differentiable Pooling
- Gradient-based Hierarchical Clustering
- Gradient-based Hierarchical Clustering using Continuous Representations of Trees in Hyperbolic Space

## Continual Learning on Speech and Audio: Towards Data, Model and Metrics

In recent years, the community has witnessed the enormous progress of deep neural network models in matching or even surpassing human performance on a variety of speech and audio tasks, including Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Spoken Lan guage Understanding (SLU), Text-to-Speech (TTS), etc. However, their impressive and powerful achievement is predominantly dependent on training with a large set of data defined by a particular and rigid task. In such a paradigm, the model is expected to learn universal knowledge from a static entity of data and stationary environments. In contrast, the real world is inherently ever-changing and non-stationary. New data is often generated and collected every second in a stream format, and novel classes may also emerge from time to time. Without proper adaptation techniques, the knowledge learned in the past might be erased easily when the model is learning subsequent tasks, thus resulting in overall performance degradation. Such a phenomenon is called catas trophic forgetting, which limits the practical use and expansion of many deep neural network models.

Continual learning has emerged as a new machine learning paradigm that enables arti f icial intelligence (AI) systems to learn from a continuous stream of data and incremen tally improve their performance over time. By adapting to changing environments and user needs, continual learning aims to address the catastrophic forgetting effect, so that the model can gradually extend the knowledge it acquires without drastically forgetting the knowledge that has been learned in the past. Such a property is crucial in practical applications to enable artificial systems to learn from the infinite streams of data of the changing world in a lifelong manner.

This thesis mainly focuses on the underexplored area of how continual learning tech niques can be effective in speech and audio tasks via three perspectives: data, model, and metrics. We will introduce the background and formulations of multiple continual learning scenarios, including data-incremental, class-incremental, and task-incremental settings. Then we will present how different categories of continual learning scenarios and methodscanbeapplied to different modules of the modeling pipeline. Starting from the taxonomy of methods, we propose to improve continual learning towards the three perspectives. First, we demonstrate how to address data sampling, selection, and im balance to help with continual learning on different audio tasks. Second, we show how the joint use of model architecture and data with different learning strategies could ben efit continual learning processes. Lastly, we propose new continual evaluation metrics vii to give us a comprehensive and deeper understanding of the general continual learning behaviors. We believe that this thesis provides an overall exploration of continual learn ing scenarios in various speech and audio tasks, and makes an important step towards realizing lifelong learning of speech interfaces.

## Degree Type

- Dissertation
- Electrical and Computer Engineering

## Degree Name

- Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

## Usage metrics

- Electrical and Electronic Engineering not elsewhere classified

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ml. Beginners please see learnmachinelearning

## What is a good topic for an undergraduate thesis in Machine Learning?

I'm an undergrad Applied Math student who's interested in doing a thesis in Machine Learning. I'm currently taking a Machine Learning class offered at my school, and have some prior experience in the field, although not a ton.

As a beginner, its hard for me to recognize specific areas where I could possibly make some contribution, or do research of some "novel" approach. For example some areas of Machine Learning, such as Collaborative Filtering, have already had large bodies of research done on them, which would make it hard to improve upon the preexisting techniques.

What recommendations do you have for some sources, papers, where I could get some inspiration, or suggest areas/specific problems/specific techniques?

M.Tech/Ph.D Thesis Help in Chandigarh | Thesis Guidance in Chandigarh

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## Latest thesis topics in Machine Learning for research scholars:

Choosing a research and thesis topics in Machine Learning is the first choice of masters and Doctorate scholars now a days. Though, choosing and working on a thesis topic in machine learning is not an easy task as Machine learning uses certain statistical algorithms to make computers work in a certain way without being explicitly programmed. The algorithms receive an input value and predict an output for this by the use of certain statistical methods. The main aim of machine learning is to create intelligent machines which can think and work like human beings. Achieving the above mentioned goals is surely not very easy because of which students who choose research topic in machine learning face difficult challenges and require professional thesis help in their thesis work.

## Below is the list of the latest thesis topics in Machine learning for research scholars:

- The classification technique for the face spoof detection in artificial neural networks using concepts of machine learning .
- The iris detection and reorganization system using classification and glcm algorithm in machine learning.
- Using machine learning algorithms in the detection of pattern system using algorithm of textual feature analysis and classification
- The plant disease detection using glcm and KNN classification in neural networks merged with the concepts of machine learning
- Using the algorithms of machine learning to propose technique for the prediction analysis in data mining
- The sentiment analysis technique using SVM classifier in data mining using machine learning approach
- The heart disease prediction using technique of classification in machine learning using the concepts of data mining.

So let’s start with machine learning.

First of all…

What exactly is machine learning?

Find the link at the end to download the latest topics for thesis and research in Machine Learning

## What is Machine Learning?

Machine Learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that gives systems the ability to learn automatically and improve themselves from the experience without being explicitly programmed or without the intervention of human. Its main aim is to make computers learn automatically from the experience.

Requirements of creating good machine learning systems

So what is required for creating such machine learning systems? Following are the things required in creating such machine learning systems:

Data – Input data is required for predicting the output.

Algorithms – Machine Learning is dependent on certain statistical algorithms to determine data patterns.

Automation – It is the ability to make systems operate automatically.

Iteration – The complete process is iterative i.e. repetition of process.

Scalability – The capacity of the machine can be increased or decreased in size and scale.

Modeling – The models are created according to the demand by the process of modeling.

Methods of Machine Learning

Machine Learning methods are classified into certain categories These are:

- Supervised Learning
- Unsupervised Learning

Reinforcement Learning

Supervised Learning – In this method, input and output is provided to the computer along with feedback during the training. The accuracy of predictions by the computer during training is also analyzed. The main goal of this training is to make computers learn how to map input to the output.

Unsupervised Learning – In this case, no such training is provided leaving computers to find the output on its own. Unsupervised learning is mostly applied on transactional data. It is used in more complex tasks. It uses another approach of iteration known as deep learning to arrive at some conclusions.

Reinforcement Learning – This type of learning uses three components namely – agent, environment, action. An agent is the one that perceives its surroundings, an environment is the one with which an agent interacts and acts in that environment. The main goal in reinforcement learning is to find the best possible policy.

How does machine learning work?

Machine learning makes use of processes similar to that of data mining. Machine learning algorithms are described in terms of target function(f) that maps input variable (x) to an output variable (y). This can be represented as:

There is also an error e which is the independent of the input variable x. Thus the more generalized form of the equation is:

In machine the mapping from x to y is done for predictions. This method is known as predictive modeling to make most accurate predictions. There are various assumptions for this function.

Benefits of Machine Learning

Everything is dependent on machine learning. Find out what are the benefits of machine learning.

Decision making is faster – Machine learning provides the best possible outcomes by prioritizing the routine decision-making processes.

Adaptability – Machine Learning provides the ability to adapt to new changing environment rapidly. The environment changes rapidly due to the fact that data is being constantly updated.

Innovation – Machine learning uses advanced algorithms that improve the overall decision-making capacity. This helps in developing innovative business services and models.

Insight – Machine learning helps in understanding unique data patterns and based on which specific actions can be taken.

Business growth – With machine learning overall business process and workflow will be faster and hence this would contribute to the overall business growth and acceleration.

Outcome will be good – With machine learning the quality of the outcome will be improved with lesser chances of error.

Branches of Machine Learning

- Computational Learning Theory
- Adversarial Machine Learning
- Quantum Machine Learning
- Robot Learning
- Meta-Learning

Computational Learning Theory – Computational learning theory is a subfield of machine learning for studying and analyzing the algorithms of machine learning. It is more or less similar to supervised learning.

Adversarial Machine Learning – Adversarial machine learning deals with the interaction of machine learning and computer security. The main aim of this technique is to look for safer methods in machine learning to prevent any form of spam and malware. It works on the following three principles:

Finding vulnerabilities in machine learning algorithms.

Devising strategies to check these potential vulnerabilities.

Implementing these preventive measures to improve the security of the algorithms.

Quantum Machine Learning – This area of machine learning deals with quantum physics. In this algorithm, the classical data set is translated into quantum computer for quantum information processing. It uses Grover’s search algorithm to solve unstructured search problems.

Predictive Analysis – Predictive Analysis uses statistical techniques from data modeling, machine learning and data mining to analyze current and historical data to predict the future. It extracts information from the given data. Customer relationship management(CRM) is the common application of predictive analysis.

Robot Learning – This area deals with the interaction of machine learning and robotics. It employs certain techniques to make robots to adapt to the surrounding environment through learning algorithms.

Grammar Induction – It is a process in machine learning to learn formal grammar from a given set of observations to identify characteristics of the observed model. Grammar induction can be done through genetic algorithms and greedy algorithms.

Meta-Learning – In this process learning algorithms are applied on meta-data and mainly deals with automatic learning algorithms.

Best Machine Learning Tools

Here is a list of artificial intelligence and machine learning tools for developers:

ai-one – It is a very good tool that provides software development kit for developers to implement artificial intelligence in an application.

Protege – It is a free and open-source framework and editor to build intelligent systems with the concept of ontology. It enables developers to create, upload and share applications.

IBM Watson – It is an open-API question answering system that answers questions asked in natural language. It has a collection of tools which can be used by developers and in business.

DiffBlue – It is another tool in artificial intelligence whose main objective is to locate bugs, errors and fix weaknesses in the code. All such things are done through automation.

TensorFlow – It is an open-source software library for machine learning. TensorFlow provides a library of numerical computations along with documentation, tutorials and other resources for support.

Amazon Web Services – Amazon has launched toolkits for developers along with applications which range from image interpretation to facial recognition.

OpenNN – It is an open-source, high-performance library for advanced analytics and is written in C++ programming language. It implements neural networks. It has a lot of tutorials and documentation along with an advanced tool known as Neural Designer.

Apache Spark – It is a framework for large-scale processing of data. It also provides a programming tool for deep learning on various machines.

Caffe – It is a framework for deep learning and is used in various industrial applications in the area of speech, vision and expression.

Veles – It is another deep learning platform written in C++ language and make use of python language for interaction between the nodes.

Machine Learning Applications

Following are some of the applications of machine learning:

Cognitive Services

Medical Services

Language Processing

Business Management

Image Recognition

Face Detection

Video Games

Computer Vision

Pattern Recognition

Machine Learning in Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics term is a combination of two terms bio, informatics. Bio means related to biology and informatics means information. Thus bioinformatics is a field that deals with processing and understanding of biological data using computational and statistical approach. Machine Learning has a number of applications in the area of bioinformatics. Machine Learning find its application in the following subfields of bioinformatics:

Genomics – Genomics is the study of DNA of organisms. Machine Learning systems can help in finding the location of protein-encoding genes in a DNA structure. Gene prediction is performed by using two types of searches named as extrinsic and intrinsic. Machine Learning is used in problems related to DNA alignment.

Proteomics – Proteomics is the study of proteins and amino acids. Proteomics is applied to problems related to proteins like protein side-chain prediction, protein modeling, and protein map prediction.

Microarrays – Microarrays are used to collect data about large biological materials. Machine learning can help in the data analysis, pattern prediction and genetic induction. It can also help in finding different types of cancer in genes.

System Biology – It deals with the interaction of biological components in the system. These components can be DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites. Machine Learning help in modeling these interactions.

Text mining – Machine learning help in extraction of knowledge through natural language processing techniques.

Deep Learning

Deep Learning is a part of the broader field machine learning and is based on data representation learning. It is based on the interpretation of artificial neural network. Deep Learning algorithm uses many layers of processing. Each layer uses the output of previous layer as an input to itself. The algorithm used can be supervised algorithm or unsupervised algorithm. Deep Learning is mainly developed to handle complex mappings of input and output. It is another hot topic for M.Tech thesis and project along with machine learning.

Deep Neural Network

Deep Neural Network is a type of Artificial Neural Network with multiple layers which are hidden between the input layer and the output layer. This concept is known as feature hierarchy and it tends to increase the complexity and abstraction of data. This gives network the ability to handle very large, high-dimensional data sets having millions of parameters. The procedure of deep neural networks is as follows:

Consider some examples from a sample dataset.

Calculate error for this network.

Improve weight of the network to reduce the error.

Repeat the procedure.

Applications of Deep Learning

Here are some of the applications of Deep Learning:

Automatic Speech Recognition

Natural Language Processing

Customer Relationship Management

Bioinformatics

Mobile Advertising

Advantages of Deep Learning

Deep Learning helps in solving certain complex problems with high speed which were earlier left unsolved. Deep Learning is very useful in real world applications. Following are some of the main advantages of deep learning:

Eliminates unnecessary costs – Deep Learning helps to eliminate unnecessary costs by detecting defects and errors in the system.

Identifies defects which otherwise are difficult to detect – Deep Learning helps in identifying defects which left untraceable in the system.

Can inspect irregular shapes and patterns – Deep Learning can inspect irregular shapes and patterns which is difficult for machine learning to detect.

From this introduction, you must have known that why this topic is called as hot for your M.Tech thesis and projects. This was just the basic introduction to machine learning and deep learning. There is more to explore in these fields. You will get to know more once you start doing research on this topic for your M.Tech thesis. You can get thesis assistance and guidance on this topic from experts specialized in this field.

## Research and Thesis Topics in Machine Learning

Here is the list of current research and thesis topics in Machine Learning :

Machine Learning Algorithms

Supervised Machine Learning

Unsupervised Machine Learning

Neural Networks

Predictive Learning

Bayesian Network

Data Mining

For starting with Machine Learning, you need to know some algorithms. Machine Learning algorithms are classified into three categories which provide the base for machine learning. These categories of algorithms are supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. The choice of algorithms depends upon the type of tasks you want to be done along with the type, quality, and nature of data present. The role of input data is crucial in machine learning algorithms.

Computer Vision is a field that deals with making systems that can read and interpret images. In simple terms, computer vision is a method of transmitting human intelligence and vision in machines. In computer vision, data is collected from images which are imparted to systems. The system will take action according to the information it interprets from what it sees.

It is a good topic for machine learning masters thesis. It is a type of machine learning algorithm in which makes predictions based on known data-sets. Input and output is provided to the system along with feedback. Supervised Learning is further classified into classification and regression problems. In the classification problem, the output is a category while in regression problem the output is a real value.

It is another category of machine learning algorithm in which input is known but the output is not known. Prior training is not provided to the system as in case of supervised learning. The main purpose of unsupervised learning is to model the underlying structure of data. Clustering and Association are the two types of unsupervised learning problems. k-means and Apriori algorithm are the examples of unsupervised learning algorithms.

Deep Learning is a hot topic in Machine Learning. It is already explained above. It is a part of the family of machine learning and deals with the functioning of the artificial neural network. Neural Networks are used to study the functioning of the human brain. It is one of the growing and exciting field. Deep learning has made it possible for the practical implementation of various machine learning applications.

Neural Networks are the systems to study the biological neural networks. It is an important application of machine learning and a good topic for masters thesis and research. The main purpose of Artificial Neural Network is to study how the human brain works. It finds its application in computer vision, speech recognition, machine translation etc. Artificial Neural Network is a collection of nodes which represent neurons.

Reinforcement Learning is a category of machine learning algorithms. Reinforcement Learning deals with software agents to study how these agents take actions in an environment in order to maximize their performance. Reinforcement Learning is different from supervised learning in the sense that correct input and output parameters are not provided.

Predictive Learning is another good topic for thesis in machine learning. In this technique, a model is built by an agent of its environment in which it performs actions. There is another field known as predictive analytics which is used to make predictions about future events which are unknown. For this, techniques like data mining, statistics, modeling, machine learning, and artificial intelligence are used.

It is a network that represents probabilistic relationships via Directed Acyclic Graph(DAG). There are algorithms in Bayesian Network for inference and learning. In the network, a probability function is there for each node which takes an input to give probability to the value associated with the node. Bayesian Network finds its application in bioinformatics, image processing, and computational biology.

Data Mining is the process of finding patterns from large data-sets to extract valuable information to make better decisions. It is a hot area of research. This technology use method from machine learning, statistics, and database systems for processing. There exist data mining techniques like clustering, association, decision trees, classification for the data mining process.

## Click on the following link to download the latest thesis and research topics in Machine Learning

Latest Thesis and Research Topics on Machine Learning(pdf)

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## Constraining Explosion Physics and Progenitors of Transients via Statistical Inferencing of All Sky Survey Data Streams

Advancements in astronomical imaging all-sky surveys are revolutionising the field of time domain astronomy. However, the immense volume of alert data presents a critical bottleneck in maximizing scientific returns from these surveys. Effectively analyzing alert streams to discover transients in unexplored physical parameter spaces is crucial for enhancing scientific output. Building robust infrastructure to identify, prioritize, and execute efficient follow-up strategies on alert streams from all-sky surveys becomes critical. My thesis confronts this challenge through a multidisciplinary approach, by integrating statistical methods, machine learning algorithms, and hydrodynamical simulations to constrain transient explosion properties and motivate effective follow-up initiatives.

I analyze a sample of 45 Type II supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) public survey using a grid of hydrodynamical models in order to assess whether theoretically driven forecasts can intelligently guide follow-up observations supporting all-sky survey alert streams. I estimate several progenitor properties and explosion physics parameters, including zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) mass, mass-loss rate, kinetic energy, 56 Ni mass synthesized, host extinction, and the time of the explosion. This work involves simulations of real-time of evolving incomplete light curves of the sample (∆t < 25 days, ∆t < 50 days, all data) leading to the conclusion that certain physical parameters exhibit greater reliability as indicators of true values during early epochs. This study emphasises the vital role of real-time modeling of transients, supported by multi-band synthetic light curves tailored to survey passbands, for identifying interesting transients based on their progenitor and explosion properties and determining critical epochs for follow-up observations.

In my thesis, I report multi wavelength observations and characterization of the ultraluminous transient AT 2021lwx (ZTF20abrbeie; aka“Barbie”) identified in the ZTF alert stream, that was flagged as an anomaly by the Recommender Engine For Intelligent Transient Track-ing (REFITT). From a spectroscopically measured redshift of 0.9945, and slowly fading g and r light curves spanning over 1000 observer-frame days that peak with an absolute magnitude of Mr = −25.7 mag, AT 2021lwx has an extraordinary peak pseudo-bolometric luminosity of log (Lmax/[erg/s]) = 45.7. The total radiative energy is over 10 53 erg, and as of today, the transient continues to decline slowly following a t −5/3 power-law. Modeling available photometry with MOSFiT suggests that AT 2021lwx is a tidal disruption event (TDE) candidate involving a ≈ 14 or 15 solar mass star accreting onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with mass M BH ≈ 10 8 solar mass. But, intriguingly, no host galaxy associated with the theorized SMBH is detected yet. The Pan-STARRS non-detections do not definitively exclude the existence of a galaxy hosting AT 2021lwx. Utilizing EzGal, upper limits on the stellar mass for different stellar population models were determined. These upper limits suggest that a 10 10 solar mass host galaxy cannot be ruled out.

The enhanced sensitivity of upcoming large-scale all-sky surveys enables the early detection of transients, providing unique insights into their progenitor systems, an example being detection of shock cooling emission (SCE) in light curves of stripped-envelope supernovae(SESNe). Leveraging a statistically significant sample of these events with early detections from all-sky surveys presents an invaluable opportunity to constrain their environments, pro-genitors, and explosion properties. In my final study contributing to this thesis, I analyze a sample of 16 SESNe identified from the ZTF survey, characterised by prominent shock cooling emission features in their light curves. By modeling the SCE and the radioactive peak in these transients, I derive estimates of progenitor radius, mass of the extended envelope and explosion properties of SESNe. This analysis yields upper limits and ranges for the compactness and envelope structures of the SESN progenitors that exhibit SCE in their light curves. I conclude my thesis with a summary of the findings and their future applications.

## Degree Type

- Doctor of Philosophy
- Physics and Astronomy

## Campus location

- West Lafayette

## Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Additional committee member 2, additional committee member 3, additional committee member 4, usage metrics.

- Stellar astronomy and planetary systems

## IMAGES

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## COMMENTS

Based on this background, the aim of this thesis is to select and implement a machine learning process that produces an algorithm, which is able to detect whether documents have been translated by humans or computerized systems. This algorithm builds the basic structure for an approach to evaluate these documents. 1.2 Related Work

Towards precision medicine for cancer patient stratification. Unraveling gene regulation from single cell data. Developing a Stress Granule Classifier. Machine Learning based Hyperheuristic algorithm. Machine learning for solving satisfiability problems and applications in cryptanalysis. Hybrid modeling approaches for well drilling with Sintef.

This article provides a list of 20 potential thesis ideas for an undergraduate program in machine learning and deep learning in 2023. Each thesis idea includes an introduction, which presents a brief overview of the topic and the research objectives. The ideas provided are related to different areas of machine learning and deep learning, such ...

PhD Dissertations [All are .pdf files] Probabilistic Reinforcement Learning: Using Data to Define Desired Outcomes, and Inferring How to Get There Benjamin Eysenbach, 2023. Data-driven Decisions - An Anomaly Detection Perspective Shubhranshu Shekhar, 2023. METHODS AND APPLICATIONS OF EXPLAINABLE MACHINE LEARNING Joon Sik Kim, 2023. Applied Mathematics of the Future Kin G. Olivares, 2023

that a machine can be made to simulate it." [3] In the AI field, there are several terms. Artificial intelligence is the largest collection, machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning, as shown in Exhibit 2.3 [4]. This thesis mainly

of the basics of machine learning, it might be better understood as a collection of tools that can be applied to a speci c subset of problems. 1.2 What Will This Book Teach Me? The purpose of this book is to provide you the reader with the following: a framework with which to approach problems that machine learning learning might help solve ...

Machine learning (ML) systems are remarkably successful on a variety of benchmarks across sev-eral domains. In these benchmarks, the test data points, though not identical, are very similar to ... This thesis focuses on an extreme version of this brittleness, adversarial examples, where even imperceptible (but carefully constructed) changes ...

Student PerformanceM. Sc. Thesis, 35 pages June 2017This thesis examines the application of machine learning algorithms t. predict whether a student will be successful or not. The specific focus of the thesis is the comparison of machine learning methods and feature engineering techniques in term.

However, traditional analysis techniques and human intuition are of limited use on so-called "big-data" environments, and one of the most promising areas to prepare for this influx of complex training data is the field of machine learning. Thus, the objective of this thesis was to lay the foundations for the use of machine learning algorithms ...

Using machine learning algorithms is a trend that can be attributed to the. exponential growth in computing power, availability of such resources on the cloud, at not only process vast amounts of data but con-tinually addre. s the problems w. proving to be efective and have been used in pastresearch to predict.

Machine learning applications to both decision-making and decision-support are growing. Further,witheachsuccessfulapplication,learningalgorithmsaregain- ing increased autonomy and control over decision-making. As a result, research into intelligent decision-making algorithms continues to improve. For example, theStanfordResearchInstitute ...

Advancements in machine learning techniques have encouraged scholars to focus on convolutional neural network (CNN) based solutions for object detection and pose estimation tasks. Most … Year: 2020 Contributor: Derman, Can Eren (creator) Bahar, Iris (thesis advisor) Taubin, Gabriel (reader) Brown University. School of Engineering (sponsor ...

Bachelor's thesis, Harvard College. Abstract Drawing on lectures, course materials, existing textbooks, and other resources, we synthesize and consolidate the content necessary to offer a successful first exposure to machine learning for students with an undergraduate-level background in linear algebra and statistics.

Writing your thesis at a company simplifies the task of choosing a research topic as you are likely to be put to work on a particular business or research problem. ... traditional machine learning research is performed by using different machine learning methods to solve a particular (prediction or classification) problem and then comparing ...

Machine Learning, a natural outgrowth at the intersection of Computer Science and Statistics, has evolved into a broad, highly successful, and extremely dynamic discipline. ... In this thesis, we develop theoretical foundations and new algorithms for several important emerging learning paradigms of signiﬁcant practical importance, including ...

machine learning might be a solution, which is what is evaluated in this thesis. 1.2 Problem The purpose of this master thesis is to try to nd an answer to the question: How well can we grade the quality of technical texts using machine learning with graded job application tests from Sigma Technology as reference? 1

This thesis focuses on the application of integer optimization to address sparsity problems. ... This novel method builds on machine learning capabilities to deliver diagnosis in under a minute, without the use of any reagent, achieving a precision close to that of PCR. Sparse methods enable the detection of specific characteristics in the 3D ...

Machine learning is an essential part of artificial intelligence used to design algorithms based on data trends and past relationships between data. Machine learning is used in a variety of areas such as bioinformatics, intrusion detection, information retrieval, games, marketing, malware detection, and image decoding.

My research is in machine learning, I've seen people introducing their own abbreviations and names for their own stuff (e.g. model architectures) and they expect people to know what they're talking about in a follow-up paper. They don't. 4. Follow the scientific method.

Open Topics We offer multiple Bachelor/Master theses, Guided Research projects and IDPs in the area of data mining/machine learning. A non-exhaustive list of open topics is listed below.. If you are interested in a thesis or a guided research project, please send your CV and transcript of records to Prof. Stephan Günnemann via email and we will arrange a meeting to talk about the potential ...

Continual learning has emerged as a new machine learning paradigm that enables arti f icial intelligence (AI) systems to learn from a continuous stream of data and incremen tally improve their performance over time. ... This thesis mainly focuses on the underexplored area of how continual learning tech niques can be effective in speech and ...

For example, perhaps take a walk through a park, take pictures of all of the plants of one species, and see if you can use machine learning that can figure out things like degree of branching, age, pest prevalence, etc., from images of the plant. Undergrad ML TA. I suggest you find a researcher at your university, preferably in biology ...

This thesis serves as a guide for managers of industrial and IoT systems looking to assess and upgrade the cyber risk posture of their organization. It focuses on one portion of industrial cyber security: early detection of anomalies. In this area, machine learning (ML) based anomaly

Choosing a research and thesis topics in Machine Learning is the first choice of masters and Doctorate scholars now a days. Though, choosing and working on a thesis topic in machine learning is not an easy task as Machine learning uses certain statistical algorithms to make computers work in a certain way without being explicitly programmed ...

This dissertation explores a critical issue in computational cybersecurity methods, emphasizing the limitations of Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) models that rely heavily on extensive datasets of normal and synthesized attack data points. Given the scarcity of real attack data and the impracticality of using synthesized data for training in real-world applications, the research ...

My thesis confronts this challenge through a multidisciplinary approach, by integrating statistical methods, machine learning algorithms, and hydrodynamical simulations to constrain transient explosion properties and motivate effective follow-up initiatives. I analyze a sample of 45 Type II supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF ...

New research using satellite imagery and machine learning offers a fresh clue in the mystery of what happened to the original settlers of Easter Island. CNN values your feedback 1.