357 Diabetes Essay Topics & Examples

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🏆 Best Diabetes Essay Examples & Topics

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  • Adult-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Patient’s Profile Any immediate care as well as post-discharge treatment should be explained in the best manner possible that is accessible and understandable to the patient.
  • Type 2 Diabetes The two major types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Doctor: The first step in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is consumption of healthy diet.
  • Living With a Chronic Disease: Diabetes and Asthma This paper will look at the main effects of chronic diseases in the lifestyle of the individuals and analyze the causes and the preventive measures of diabetes as a chronic disease.
  • Intervention Methods for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus An individual should maintain a regulated glycemic control using the tenets of self-management to reduce the possibility of complications related to diabetes.
  • Relation Between Diabetes And Nutrition Any efforts to lessen and eliminate the risk of developing diabetes must involve the dietary habit of limiting the consumption of carbohydrates, sugar, and fats. According to Belfort-DeAguiar and Dongju, the three factors of obesity, […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Symptoms, Types, Effects Insulin is the hormone that controls the levels of glucose in the blood, and when the pancreas releases it, immediately the high levels are controlled, like after a meal.
  • Diabetes Impact on Cardiovascular and Nervous Systems Diabetes is one of the commonest conditions affecting many people in different parts of the world. The first type is also called “juvenile diabetes” and it occurs when the body of an individual is incapable […]
  • Nursing Care Development Plan for Diabetes and Hypertension In addressing the first nursing diagnosis, the main aim of the nursing interventions will be to prevent the development of secondary hypoglycemia by increasing blood glucose levels.
  • Qualitative Research in Diabetes Management in Elderly Patient To achieve the research aim, which is to find out the causes of diabetes among elderly people, the researcher will have to organize the research team.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Management in the Elderly Diabetes mellitus is a health complication involving an increase in the concentration in the concentration of blood sugar either due to a failure by cells to effectively respond to the production of insulin in the […]
  • Type 2 Diabetes as a Public Health Issue In recent years, a steady increase in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes is observed in almost all countries of the world.
  • Diabetes in Adults in Oxfordshire On a national level, Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation aims to prevent the spread of the decease through research of the causes and effective treatment of diabetes 2 type.
  • Case Study of Patient with DKA and Diabetes Mellitus It is manifested by a sharp increase in glucose levels and the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood, their appearance in the urine, regardless of the degree of violation of the patient’s consciousness.
  • A Study of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes in the Northwest of England The total number of children under seventeen years living with type 1 diabetes in North West England by 2009 was 2,630.
  • Gestational Diabetes in a 38-Year-Old Woman The concept map, created to meet B.’s needs, considers her educational requirements and cultural and racial hurdles to recognize her risk factors and interventions to increase her adherence to the recommended course of treatment.B.said in […]
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Implications You call an ambulance and she is taken in to the ED. Background: Jean is still very active and works on the farm 3 days a week.
  • Development of Comprehensive Inpatient and Outpatient Programs for Diabetes Overcoming the fiscal and resource utilization issues in the development of a comprehensive diabetes program is essential for the improvement of health and the reduction of treatment costs.
  • Healthcare Cost Depending on Chronic Disease Management of Diabetes and Hypertension A sufficient level of process optimization and the presence of a professional treating staff in the necessary number will be able to help improve the indicators.
  • Improving Glycemic Control in Black Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Information in them is critical for answering the question and supporting them with the data that might help to acquire an enhanced understanding of the issue under research. Finally, answering the PICOT question, it is […]
  • Shared Decision-Making That Affects the Management of Diabetes The article by Peek et al.is a qualitative study investigating the phenomenon of shared decision-making that affects the management of diabetes. The researchers demonstrate the racial disparity that can arise in the choice of approaches […]
  • Managing Obesity as a Strategy for Addressing Type 2 Diabetes When a patient, as in the case of Amanda, requires a quick solution to the existing problem, it is necessary to effectively evaluate all options in the shortest possible time.
  • Tests and Screenings: Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease The test is offered to patients regardless of gender, while the age category is usually above 45 years. CDC1 recommends doing the test regardless of gender and is conducted once or twice to check the […]
  • Obesity Management for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes American Diabetes Association states that for overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes who are ready to lose weight, a 5% weight reduction diet, physical exercise, and behavioral counseling should be provided.
  • COVID-19 and Diabetes Mellitus Lim et al, in their article, “COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: from pathophysiology to clinical management”, explored how COVID-19 can worsen the symptoms of diabetes mellitus.
  • The Importance of Physical Exercise in Diabetes II Patients The various activities help to improve blood sugar levels, reduce cardiovascular cases and promote the overall immunity of the patient. Subsequently, the aerobic part will help to promote muscle development and strengthen the bones.
  • Diabetes Education Workflow Process Mapping DSN also introduces the patient to the roles of specialists involved in managing the condition, describes the patient’s actions, and offers the necessary educational materials.
  • Diabetes: Treatment Complications and Adjustments One of the doctor’s main priorities is to check the compatibility of a patient’s medications. The prescriptions of other doctors need to be thoroughly checked and, if necessary, replaced with more appropriate medication.
  • The Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus PICOT (Evidence-Based) Project Blood glucose levels, A1C, weight, and stress management are the parameters to indicate the adequacy of physical exercise in managing T2DM.
  • Chronic Disease Cost Calculator (Diabetes) This paper aims at a thorough, detailed, and exhaustive explanation of such a chronic disease as diabetes in terms of the prevalence and cost of treatment in the United States and Maryland.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Epidemiology Statistics This study entails a standard established observation order from the established starting time to an endpoint, in this case, the onset of disease, death, or the study’s end. It is crucial to state this value […]
  • Epidemiology: Type II Diabetes in Hispanic Americans The prevalence of type II diabetes in Hispanic Americans is well-established, and the search for inexpensive prevention methods is in the limelight.
  • Diabetes: Risk Factors and Effects Trends in improved medical care and the development of technology and medicine are certainly contributing to the reduction of the problem. All of the above indicates the seriousness of the problem of diabetes and insufficient […]
  • Barriers to Engagement in Collaborative Care Treatment of Uncontrolled Diabetes The primary role of physicians, nurses, and other healthcare team members is to provide patients with medical treatment and coordinate that care while also working to keep costs down and expand access.
  • Hereditary Diabetes Prevention With Lifestyle Modification Yeast infections between the fingers and toes, beneath the breast, and in or around the genital organs are the common symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
  • Health Equity Regarding Type 2 Diabetes According to Tajkarimi, the number of research reports focusing on T2D’s prevalence and characteristics in underserved minorities in the U. Adapting the program’s toolkits to rural Americans’ eating and self-management habits could also be instrumental […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Treatment Methods Moreover, according to the multiple findings conducted by Park et al, Billeter et al, and Tsilingiris et al, bariatric surgeries have a positive rate of sending diabetes into remission.
  • Diagnosing Patient with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes The possible outcomes of the issues that can be achieved are discussing the violations with the patient’s family and convincing them to follow the medical regulations; convincing the girl’s family to leave her at the […]
  • Human Service for Diabetes in Late Adulthood The mission of the Georgia Diabetic Foot Care Program is to make a positive difference in the health of persons living with diabetes.
  • Diabetes: Symptoms and Risk Factors In terms of the problem, according to estimates, 415 million individuals worldwide had diabetes mellitus in 2015, and it is expected to rise to 642 million by the year 2040.
  • Diabetes: Types and Management Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the United States caused when the body fails to optimally metabolize food into energy.
  • Epidemiology of Diabetes and Forecasted Trends The authors note that urbanization and the rapid development of economies of different countries are the main causes of diabetes. The authors warn that current diabetes strategies are not effective since the rate of the […]
  • The Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative in Canada The ADI’s goal in the CDS was to raise type 2 diabetes awareness and lower the incidence of associated consequences among Aboriginal people.
  • Communicating the Issue of Diabetes The example with a CGM sensor is meant to show that doctors should focus on educating people with diabetes on how to manage their condition and what to do in extreme situations.
  • Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 The goal is to define the features of patient information to provide data on the general course of the illness and its manifestations following the criteria of age, sex, BMI, and experimental data.
  • The Prevention of Diabetes and Its Consequences on the Population At the same time, these findings can also be included in educational programs for people living with diabetes to warn them of the risks of fractures and prevent them.
  • Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes and Depression Treatment The data synthesis demonstrates that carefully chosen depression and anxiety treatment is likely to result in better A1C outcomes for the patient on the condition that the treatment is regular and convenient for the patients.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Prevention and Education Schillinger et al.came to the same conclusion; thus, their findings on the study of the Bigger Picture campaign effectiveness among youth of color are necessary to explore diabetes prevention.
  • A Diabetes Quantitative Article Analysis The article “Correlates of accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary time among adults with type 2 diabetes” by Mathe et al.refers to the global issue of the prevention of diabetes and its complications.
  • A Type 2 Diabetes Quantitative Article Critique Therefore, the main issue is the prevention of type 2 diabetes and its consequences, and this paper will examine one of the scientific studies that will be used for its exploration.
  • The Diabetes Prevention Articles by Ford and Mathe The main goal of the researchers was to measure the baseline MVPA of participants and increase their activity to the recommended 150 minutes per week through their participation in the Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Hispanic Americans The HP2020 objectives and the “who, where, and when” of the problem highlight the significance of developing new, focused, culturally sensitive T2D prevention programs for Hispanic Americans.
  • Diabetes Mellitus as Problem in US Healthcare Simultaneously, insurance companies are interested in decreasing the incidence of diabetes to reduce the costs of testing, treatment, and provision of medicines.
  • Diabetes Prevention as a Change Project All of these queries are relevant and demonstrate the importance of including people at high risk of acquiring diabetes in the intervention.
  • Evidence Synthesis Assignment: Prevention of Diabetes and Its Complications The purpose of this research is to analyze and synthesize evidence of good quality from three quantitative research and three non-research sources to present the problem of diabetes and justify the intervention to address it.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Causes and Health Challenges Second, the nature of this problem is a clear indication of other medical concerns in this country, such as poor health objectives and strategies and absence of resources.
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Disorder Case Study Analysis Thus, informing the patient about the importance of regular medication intake, physical activity, and adherence to diet in maintaining diabetes can solve the problem.
  • Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults Thus, programs for young adults should predominantly focus on the features of the transition from adolescence to adulthood. As a consequence, educational programs on diabetes improve the physical and psychological health of young adults.
  • A Healthcare Issue of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is seen as a primary healthcare issue that affects populations across the globe and necessitates the combination of a healthy lifestyle and medication to improve the quality of life of people who suffer […]
  • Control of LDL Cholesterol Levels in Patients, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In addition, some patients with hypercholesterolemia may have statin intolerance, which reduces adherence to therapy, limits treatment efficacy, and increases the risk of CVD.
  • Exploring Glucose Tolerance and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In the case of a glucose tolerance test for the purpose of diagnosing GDM type, the interpretation of the test results is carried out according to the norms for the overall population.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Health Issue and Exercise This approach will motivate the patient to engage in exercise and achieve better results while reducing the risk of diabetes-related complications.
  • Diabetes Interventions in Children The study aims to answer the PICOT Question: In children with obesity, how does the use of m-Health applications for controlling their dieting choices compare to the supervision of their parents affect children’s understanding of […]
  • Diabetes Tracker Device and Its Advantages The proposed diabetes tracker is a device that combines the functionality of an electronic BGL tester and a personal assistant to help patients stick to their diet plan.
  • Disease Management for Diabetes Mellitus The selection of the appropriate philosophical and theoretical basis for the lesson is essential as it allows for the use of an evidence-based method for learning about a particular disease.
  • Latino People and Type 2 Diabetes The primary aim of the study is to determine the facilitators and barriers to investigating the decision-making process in the Latin population and their values associated with type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support Program The choice of this topic and question is based on the fact that despite the high prevalence of diabetes among adolescents in the United States, the use of DSMES among DM patients is relatively low, […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus Care Coordination The aim is to establish what medical technologies, care coordination and community resources, and standards of nursing practice contribute to the quality of care and safety of patients with diabetes.
  • Healthy Lifestyle Interventions in Comorbid Asthma and Diabetes In most research, the weight loss in cases of comorbid asthma and obesity is reached through a combination of dietary interventions and physical exercise programs.
  • PDSA in Diabetes Prevention The second step in the “Do” phase would be to isolate a few members of the community who are affected by diabetes voluntarily.
  • Diabetes: Statistics, Disparities, Therapies The inability to produce adequate insulin or the body’s resistance to the hormone is the primary cause of diabetes. Diabetes is a serious health condition in the U.S.and the world.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Prescriptions and Interventions The disadvantage is the difficulty of obtaining a universal model due to the complexity of many factors that can affect the implementation of recommendations: from the variety of demographic data to the patient’s medical history.
  • Health Education for Female African Americans With Diabetes In order to address and inform the public about the challenges, nurses are required to intervene by educating the population on the issues to enhance their understanding of the risks associated with the conditions they […]
  • Diabetes Risk Assessment and Prevention It is one of the factors predisposing patients suffering from diabetes to various cardiovascular diseases. With diabetes, it is important to learn how to determine the presence of carbohydrates in foods.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Preventive Measures In addition to addressing the medical specialists who will be of service in disease prevention, it will emphasize the intervention programs required to help control the spread of the illness.
  • “The Diabetes Online Community” by Litchman et al. The researchers applied the method of telephone interviews to determine the results and effectiveness of the program. The study described the value of DOC in providing support and knowledge to older diabetes patients.
  • Mobile App for Improved Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes The central focus of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the BlueStar app in controlling glucose levels among the participants.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Minorities from Cultural Perspective The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical and cultural perspectives on the issue of T2DM in minorities. Level 2: What are the ethical obstacles to treating T2DM in ethnic and cultural minorities?
  • Ethics of Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Minorities The purpose of this article analysis is to dwell on scholarly evidence that raises the question of ethical and cultural aspects of T2DM prevalence in minorities.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Minorities: Research Questions The Level 2 research questions are: What are the pathophysiological implications of T2DM in minorities? What are the statistical implications of T2DM in minorities?
  • Improving Adherence to Diabetes Treatment in Primary Care Settings Additionally, the patients from the intervention group will receive a detailed explanation of the negative consequences of low adherence to diabetes treatment.
  • An Advocacy Tool for Diabetes Care in the US To ensure the implementation and consideration of my plea, I sent a copy of the letter to the government officials so it could reach the president.
  • Diabetes and Allergies: A Statistical Check The current dataset allowed us to test the OR for the relationship between family history of diabetes and the presence of diabetes in a particular patient: all variables were dichotomous and discrete and could take […]
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents According to a National Diabetes Statistics Report released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the estimated prevalence of the disease was 25 cases per 10,000 adolescents in 2017. A proper understanding of T2D […]
  • Analysis of Diabetes and Its Huge Effects In the US, diabetes is costly to treat and has caused much physical, emotional and mental harm to the people and the families of those who have been affected by the disease.
  • Nursing: Self-Management of Type II Diabetes Sandra Fernandes and Shobha Naidu’s journal illustrates the authors’ understanding of a significant topic in the nursing profession.”Promoting Participation in self-care management among patients with diabetes mellitus” article exposes readers to Peplau’s theory to understand […]
  • The Impact of Vegan and Vegetarian Diets on Diabetes Vegetarian diets are popular for a variety of reasons; according to the National Health Interview Survey in the United States, about 2% of the population reported following a vegetarian dietary pattern for health reasons in […]
  • “Diabetes Prevention in U.S. Hispanic Adults” by McCurley et al. This information allows for supposing that face-to-face interventions can be suitable to my practicum project that considers measures to improve access to care among African Americans with heart failure diseases. Finally, it is possible to […]
  • Diabetes Disease of the First and Second Types It is a decrease in the biological response of cells to one or more effects of insulin at its average concentration in the blood. During the first type of diabetes, insulin Degludec is required together […]
  • Person-Centered Strategy of Diabetes and Dementia Care The population of focus for this study will be Afro-American women aged between sixty and ninety who have diabetes of the second type and dementia or are likely to develop dementia in the future.
  • Video Consultations Between Patients and Clinicians in Diabetes, Cancer, and Heart Failure Services For example, during one of my interactions with the patient, I was asked whether the hospital had the policy to avoid face-to-face interaction during the pandemic with the help of video examinations.
  • Diets to Prevent Heart Disease, Cancer, and Diabetes In order to prevent heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, people are required to adhere to strict routines, including in terms of diet. Additionally, people wanting to prevent heart disease, cancer, and diabetes also need to […]
  • The Centers for Diabetes’ Risks Assessment In general, the business case for the Centers for Diabetes appears to be positive since the project is closely aligned with the needs of the community and the targets set by the Affordable Care Act.
  • Diabetes Management: Case Study Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes contrast based on their definitions, the causes, and the management of the conditions. Since the CDC promotes the avoidance of saturated fat and the increase of fiber intake for […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus as Leading Cause of Disability The researchers used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where more than 12% of older people in the US live with the condition.
  • Depression in Diabetes Patients The presence of depression concomitant to diabetes mellitus prevents the adaptation of the patient and negatively affects the course of the underlying disease.
  • The Relationship Between Diabetes and COVID-19 After completing the research and analyzing the articles, it is possible to suggest a best practice that may be helpful and effective in defining the relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 and providing a way to […]
  • Pre-diabetes and Urinary Incontinence Most recent reports indicate that a physiotherapy procedure gives a positive result in up to 80% of patients with stage I or SUI and mixed form and 50% of patients with stage II SUI.
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Recommendations for Alternative Drug Treatments Then, they have to assess the existing levels of literacy and numeracy a patient has. Tailoring educational initiatives to a person’s unique ethnic and cultural background is the basis of cultural competence in patient education.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: A Pharmacologic Update Diabetes presents one of the most common diagnoses in causes of ED visits among adults and one of the leading causes of death in the United States.
  • Diabetes: Vulnerability, Resilience, and Care In nursing care, resilience is a critical concept that shows the possibility of a person to continue functioning and meeting objectives despite the existing challenges.
  • Diabetes Prevention in the United States The analysis of these policies and the other strategies provides the opportunity to understand what role they might play in the improvement of human health. NDPP policy, on the other hand, emphasizes the role of […]
  • Teaching Experience: Diabetes Prevention The primary objective of the seminar is to reduce the annual number of diabetes cases and familiarize the audience with the very first signs of this disease.
  • Summary of Type 2 Diabetes: A Pharmacologic Update The authors first emphasize that T2D is one of the most widespread diseases in the United States and the seventh leading cause of death.
  • Insulin Effects in a Diabetes Person I will use this source to support my research because the perception of diabetes patients on insulin therapy is essential for understanding the impact they cause on the person.
  • Diabetes and Medical Intervention In the research conducted by Moin et al, the authors attempted to define the scope of efficiency of such a tool as an online diabetes prevention program in the prevention of diabetes among obese/overweight population […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and a Healthy Lifestyle Relationship The advantage of this study over the first is that the method uses a medical approach to determining the level of fasting glucose, while the dependences in the study of Ugandans were found using a […]
  • Diabetes and Its Economic Effect on Healthcare For many years, there has been an active increase in the number of cases of diabetes of all types among the global population, which further aggravates the situation.
  • Pathogenesis and Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension The hormone is produced by the cells of the islets of Langerhans found in the pancreas. It is attributed to the variation in the lifestyle of these individuals in these two geographical zones.
  • Parental Intervention on Self-Management of an Adolescent With Diabetes Diabetes development and exposure are strongly tied to lifestyle, and the increasing incidents rate emphasizes the severity of the population’s health problem.
  • Addressing the Needs of Hispanic Patients With Diabetes Similarly, in the program at hand, the needs of Hispanic patients with diabetes will be considered through the prism of the key specifics of the community, as well as the cultural background of the patients.
  • Diabetes Issues: Insulin Price and Unaffordability According to the forecast of researchers from Stanford University, the number of people with type 2 diabetes who need insulin-containing drugs in the world will increase by about 79 million people by 2030, which will […]
  • Diabetes: Epidemiologic Study Design For instance, the range of their parents’ involvement in the self-management practices can be a crucial factor in treatment and control.
  • What to Know About Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune reaction that prevent realization of insulin in a body. Estimated 5-10% of people who have diabetes have type 1.
  • Diabetes in Saudi Arabia It is expected that should this underlying factor be discovered, whether it is cultural, societal, or genetic in nature, this should help policymakers within Saudi Arabia create new governmental initiatives to address the problem of […]
  • “Medical Nutrition Therapy: A Key to Diabetes Management and Prevention” Article Analysis In the process of MNT application, the dietitian keeps a record of the changes in the main components of food and other components of the blood such as blood sugars to determine the trend to […]
  • Global and Societal Implications of the Diabetes Epidemic The main aim of the authors of this article seems to be alerting the reader on the consequences of diabetes to the society and to the whole world.
  • Diabetes and Hypertension Avoiding Recommendations Thus, the promotion of a healthy lifestyle should entail the encouragement of the population to cease smoking and monitor for cholesterol levels.
  • Pregnant Women With Type I Diabetes: COVID-19 Disease Management The grounded theory was selected for the given topic, and there are benefits and drawbacks of utilizing it to study the experiences of pregnant women with type I diabetes and COVID-19.
  • Current Recommendations for the Glycemic Control in Diabetes Management of blood glucose is one of the critical issues in the care of people with diabetes. Therefore, the interval of the A1C testing should also depend on the condition of the patient, the physician’s […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Types, Causes, Presentation, Treatment, and Examination Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrinologic disease, which is characterized by increased blood glucose concentration.
  • Diabetes Problem at Country Walk Community: Intervention and Evaluation This presentation develops a community health nursing intervention and evaluation tool for the diabetes problem affecting Country Walk community.
  • The Minority Diabetes Initiative Act’s Analysis The bill provides the right to the Department of Health and Human Services to generate grants to public and nonprofit private health care institutions with the aim of providing treatment for diabetes in minority communities.
  • Communication Challenges Between Nurses and Patients With Type 2 Diabetes According to Pung and Goh, one of the limitations of communication in a multicultural environment is the language barrier that manifests itself in the direct interaction of nurses with patients and in the engagement work […]
  • Diabetes Type 2 from Management Viewpoint Demonstrate the effects of type 2 diabetes and provide background information on the disease; Discuss the management plans of diabetes centers and critically analyze the frameworks implemented in the hospitals; Examine the existing methodology models […]
  • Nursing Plan for the Patient with Diabetes Type 2, HTN, and CAD The health of the population is the most valuable achievement of society, so the preservation and strengthening of it is an essential task in which everyone should participate without exception.
  • Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is a serious public health concern that introduces a group of metabolic disorders caused by changes in the sugar blood level.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type II: A Case of a Female Adult Patient In this presentation, we are going to develop a care plan for a 47-year-old woman with a 3-year-old history of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (also known as Type II DM).
  • Diabetes Insipidus: Disease Process With Implications for Healthcare Professionals This presentation will consider the topic of Diabetes Insipidus (DI) with a focus on its etiology and progress.
  • The Nature of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease that has an active genetic component, which is identified by increased blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia.
  • Imperial Diabetes Center Field Study The purpose is to examine the leadership’s practices used to maintain and improve the quality and safety standards of the facility and, using the observations and scholarly research, offer recommendations for improvement.
  • Diabetes Risk Assessment After completing the questionnaire, I learned that my risk for the development of diabetes is above average. Modern risk assessment tools allow identifying the current state of health and possibilities of developing the disease.
  • The Role of Telenursing in the Management of Diabetes Type 1 Telemedicine is the solution that could potentially increase the coverage and improve the situation for many t1DM patients in the world.
  • Health Issues of Heart Failure and Pediatric Diabetes As for the population, which is intended to participate in the research, I am convinced that there is the need to specify the patients who should be examined and monitored.
  • Juvenile Diabetes: Demographics, Statistics and Risk Factors Juvenile diabetes, also referred to as Type 2 diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, describes a health condition associated with the pancreas’s limited insulin production. The condition is characterized by the destruction of the cells that make […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Pathophysiologic Processes The main function of insulin produced by cells within the pancreas in response to food intake is to lower blood sugar levels by the facilitation of glucose uptake in the cells of the liver, fat, […]
  • Type 2 Diabetes Management in Gulf Countries One such study is the systematic review on the quality of type 2 diabetes management in the countries of the cooperation council for the Arab states of the Gulf, prepared by Alhyas, McKay, Balasanthiran, and […]
  • Patient with Ataxia and Diabetes Mellitus Therefore, the therapist prioritizes using the cushion to the client and persuades the patient to accept the product by discussing the merits of the infinity cushion with a low profile in enabling the customer to […]
  • Diabetes Evidence-Based Project: Disseminating Results In this presentation, the involvement of mentors and collaboration with administration and other stakeholders are the preferred steps, and the idea to use social networking and web pages has to be removed.
  • Leadership in Diabetes Management Nurses can collaborate and apply evidence-based strategies to empower their diabetic patients. The involvement of all key stakeholders is also necessary.
  • The Problem of Diabetes Among African Americans Taking into consideration the results of the research and the information found in the articles, the problem of diabetes among African Americans has to be identified and discussed at different levels.
  • Childhood Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Problems Based on the data given in the introduction it can be seen that childhood obesity is a real problem within the country and as such it is believed that through proper education children will be […]
  • Hypertension and Antihypertensive Therapy and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In particular, Acebutolol impairs the functions of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are neurotransmitters that mediate the functioning of the heart and the sympathetic nervous system.
  • Diabetes: Diagnosis and Treatment The disease is characterized by the pancreas almost not producing its own insulin, which leads to an increase in glucose levels in the blood.
  • How to Manage Type 2 Diabetes The article is significant to the current research problem as the researchers concluded that the assessment of metabolic processes in diabetic patients was imperative for adjusting in the management of the condition.
  • Clinical Trial of Diabetes Mellitus On the other hand, type II diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the liver and muscle cells to recognize the insulin produced by the pancreatic cells.
  • Diabetes: Diagnosis and Related Prevention & Treatment Measures The information presented on the articles offers an insight in the diagnosis of diabetes among various groups of persons and the related preventive and treatment measures. The study identified 3666 cases of initial stages of […]
  • Reinforcing Nutrition in Schools to Reduce Diabetes and Childhood Obesity For example, the 2010 report says that the rates of childhood obesity have peaked greatly compared to the previous decades: “Obesity has doubled in Maryland over the past 20 years, and nearly one-third of youth […]
  • The Connection Between Diabetes and Consuming Red Meat In light of reporting the findings of this research, the Times Healthland gave a detailed report on the various aspects of this research.
  • Synthesizing the Data From Relative Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Speaking of such demographic factors as race, the white population suffers from it in the majority of cases, unlike the rest of the races, the remaining 0.
  • Using Exenatide as Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults Kendal et al.analyzed the effects of exenatide as an adjunct to a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea against the combination of the same drugs without the adjunct.
  • Enhancing Health Literacy for People With Type 2 Diabetes Two professionals, Andrew Long, a professor in the school of heath care in the University of Leeds, and Tina Gambling, senior lecturer in the school of health care studies from the University of Cardiff, conducted […]
  • The Scientific Method of Understanding if Coffee Can Impact Diabetes The hypothesis of the experiment ought to be straightforward and understandable. The control group and the experiment group for the test are then identified.
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Review This is because of the current patterns that show an increase in the prevalence of diabetes in offspring born to mothers with GDM.
  • Health Service Management of Diabetes During the task, Fay makes a countless number of short calls and often takes water irrespective of the time of the day or the prevailing weather conditions.
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis: Pathophysiology, Role of Diabetes In the event of such an infection, the body becomes desperate to get rid of the intruders. For WBC, zero is given if the count is below 15cells/mm3, one is given if the count lies […]
  • The Benefits of Sharing Knowledge About Diabetes With Physicians In this research, 3600 diabetic patients were surveyed from twelve hospitals, but due to exclusion criterion, only 1,200 were considered for this particular research. The system allocated numbers to the participants out of which 100 […]
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus – NSW, Australia We had a deeper evaluation of the implications of GDM and we cited the inadequacy of resources and technology as the contributors of GDM.
  • Health and Wellness: Stress, Diabetes and Tobacco Related Problems Emotional health and well being refers to our ability to deal with our emotions as well as the emotions of those around us.
  • 52-Year-Old Female Patient With Type II Diabetes Diabetes type two is the primary differential diagnosis because the patient presented with: A family history of diabetes, complications of hyperglycemia, blood pressure of 130/92, ingrown toenails, tingling sensation on the feet, fasting blood glucose […]
  • Healthy People Project: Personal Review About Diabetes According to the last statistics, Type 1 diabetes is the most widespread among children in America, but there are a lot of cases of Type 2 diabetes.
  • Nursing Diagnosis: Type 1 Diabetes & Hypertension
  • Nursing Care For the Patient With Diabetes
  • Coronary Heart Disease Aggravated by Type 2 Diabetes and Age
  • Diabetes as the Scourge of the 21st Century: Locating the Solution
  • Psychosocial Implications of Diabetes Management
  • Gestational Diabetes in a Pregnant Woman
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Prominent Metabolic Disorder
  • Holistic Approach to Man’s Health: Diabetes Prevention
  • Holistic Image in Prevention of Diabetes
  • Educational Strategies for Diabetes to Patients
  • Diabetes and Obesity in the United Arab Emirates
  • Epidemiological Problem: Diabetes in Illinois
  • Diabetes as a Chronic Condition
  • Managing Diabetes Through Genetic Engineering
  • Diabetes, Functions of Insulin, and Preventive Practices
  • Treating of Diabetes in Adults
  • Counseling and Education Session in Type II Diabetes
  • Diabetes II: Reduction in the Incidence
  • Community Health Advocacy Project: Diabetes Among Hispanics
  • Community Health Advocacy Project: Hispanics With Diabetes
  • Hispanics Are More Susceptible to Diabetes That Non-Hispanics
  • Rates Diabetes Between Hispanics Males and Females
  • Diabetes Mellitus and HFSON Conceptual Framework
  • Prince Georges County Community Health Concern: Diabetes
  • Fats and Proteins in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes
  • Alcohol Interaction With Medication: Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes Management and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Critical Analysis of Policy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Australia
  • The Treatment and Management of Diabetes
  • Obesity and Diabetes: The Enemies Within
  • Impact of Diabetes on the United Arab Emirates’ Economy
  • Childhood Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
  • Health Nursing and Managing Diabetes
  • Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar
  • Diabetes Management: Diagnostics and Treatment
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: The Family Genetic History
  • Diabetes Type II: Hormonal Mechanism and Intracellular Effects of Insulin
  • Social, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Causes of Diseases: Type 2 Diabetes
  • Supportive Intervention in the Control of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Enhancing Foot Care Practices in Patients With Diabetes
  • Community Health Promotion: The Fight Against Diabetes in a Community Setting
  • Diabetes in Australia and Saudi Arabia
  • Diabetes: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Point of Care Testing
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes Prevention Measures in the Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Impact of Diabetes on Healthcare
  • Gestational Diabetes: American Diabetes Association Publishers
  • Health Promotion: Diabetes Mellitus and Comorbidities
  • Gestational Diabetes: Child Bearing Experience
  • Diabetes Mellitus Effects on Periodontal Disease
  • Diabetes Type II Disease in the Community
  • The Relationship of Type 2 Diabetes and Depression
  • Glycemic Control in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes
  • The Diagnosis of Diabetes in Older Adults and Adolescents
  • Physical Activity in Managing Type-2 Diabetes
  • High Risk of Developing Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Children With Type 1 Diabetes in Clinical Practice
  • Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Analysis
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Revealing the Diagnosis
  • The Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: Lifestyle Choices
  • Indigenous and Torres Strait Population and Diabetes
  • Interpretation of the Diabetes Interview Transcript
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Using Glucose Monitoring in Treatment
  • Managing Type 2 Diabetes Patients’ Blood Sugar Prior to and After Surgical Procedures
  • Diabetes Prevention: The Sanofi-Aventis Leaflet Review
  • Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes: Medical Terminology Definition
  • Modern Diabetes Treatment Tools
  • Diabetes: Encapsulation to Treat a Disease
  • Current Dietary for the Treatment of Diabetes
  • Diabetes: Discussion of the Disease
  • Stranahan on Diabetes Impairs Hippocampal Function
  • A Clinical-Based Study of Young Adults Who Have Diabetes
  • Panax Ginseng for Diabetes Treatment
  • Depression and Diabetes Association in Adults
  • Is There Anu Cure For Diabetes?
  • Diabetes Self-Management: Evidence-Based Nursing
  • Diabetes Type 2 in Children: Causes and Effects
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case
  • Health, Culture, and Identity as Diabetes Treatment Factors
  • Diabetes Prevention in Chinese Elderly in Hunan
  • “Experiences of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Starting Insulin Therapy” by Phillips
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Nursing Change Project
  • Diabetes and Health Promotion Concepts
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Geriatric Patients
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Geriatric Evidence-Based Care
  • Cultural Empowerment. Diabetes in Afro-Americans
  • Diabetes Self-Management: Relationships & Expectations
  • Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Improving Comprehensive Care for Patients With Diabetes
  • Side Effects of Metformin in Diabetes Treatment
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Drug Treatments
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Health Determinants
  • Nursing Leadership in Diabetes Management
  • Diabetes Education for African American Women
  • Latent Autoimmune Adult Diabetes
  • Obesity: Epidemiology and Health Consequences
  • Diabetes in Urban Cities of United States
  • Diabetes in Australia: Analysis
  • Type 2 Diabetes in the Afro-American Bronx Community
  • Type 2 Diabetes From Cultural and Genetic Aspects
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Bronx: Evidence-Based Practice
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Bronx Project for Social Change
  • Ambition Diabetes and Diet on Macbeths’ Example
  • Diabetes as Community Health Issue in the Bronx
  • Diabetes Management Plan: Diagnosis and Development
  • Diabetes Treatment and Care
  • Transition from Pediatric to Adult Diabetes Care
  • Diabetes Awareness Program and Strategic Planning
  • Diabetes: Disease Control and Investigation
  • Diabetes Pain Questionnaire and Patient Feedback
  • Perception of Diabetes in the Hispanic Population
  • Clinical Studies of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Problems at Work
  • Diabetes in the US: Cost Effectiveness Analysis
  • Diabetes Investigation in Space Flight Research
  • Diabetes Care Advice by Food and Drug Administration
  • Artificial Intelligence for Diabetes: Project Experiences
  • Diabetes Patients’ Long-Term Care and Life Quality
  • Chronic Care Model for Diabetes Patients in the UAE
  • Diabetes Among British Adults and Children
  • Endocrine Disorders: Diabetes and Fibromyalgia
  • Future Technologies: Diabetes Treatment and Care
  • Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes
  • Diabetes: Treatment Technology and Billing
  • Pathophysiology of Mellitus and Insipidus Diabetes
  • Cure for Diabetes: The Impossible Takes a Little Longer
  • Stem Cell Therapy as a Potential Cure for Diabetes
  • Stem Cell Therapy and Diabetes Medical Research
  • Type II Diabetes Susceptibility and Socioeconomic Status
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Pathophysiology and Treatment
  • Obesity and Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetes Patients
  • Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection and Type 2 Diabetes
  • Socioeconomic Status and Susceptibility to Type II Diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Differential Diagnosis
  • Diabetes Disease in the USA Adults
  • Education for African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes Treatment and Funding in Fulton County
  • Diabetes Care: Leadership and Strategy Plan
  • Diabetes Mellitus’ New Treatment: Principles and Process
  • Diet and Nutrition: European Diabetes
  • Preventing the Proliferation Diabetes
  • Diabetes: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
  • Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases in Medicine
  • Ecological Models to Deal with Diabetes in Medicine
  • Different Types of Diabetes Found in Different Countries
  • Analysis of Program “Prevent Diabetes Live Life Well”
  • The Effect of Physical, Social, and Health Variables on Diabetes
  • Micro and Macro-Cosmos in Medicine and Care Models for Prevention of Diabetes
  • Why Qualitative Method Was Chosen for Diabetes Program Evaluation
  • Humanistic Image of Managing Diabetes
  • Diabetes mellitus Education and hemoglobin A1C level
  • Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Disease
  • Illuminate Diabetes Event Design
  • Cause and Diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes
  • Patient Voices: Type 2 Diabetes. Podcast Review
  • Type I Diabetes: Pathogenesis and Treatment
  • Human Body Organ Systems Disorders: Diabetes
  • Age Influence on Physical Activity: Exercise and Diabetes
  • Hemoglobin A1C Test for Diabetes
  • Why Injury and Diabetes Have Been Identified as National Health Priority?
  • What Factors Are Involved in the Increasing Prevalence of Type II Diabetes in Adolescents?
  • Does the Socioeconomic Position Determine the Incidence of Diabetes?
  • What Are the Four Types of Diabetes?
  • How Fat and Obesity Cause Diabetes?
  • How Exercise Affects Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How Does the Treatment With Insulin Affect Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How Diabetes Does Cause Depression?
  • Does Diabetes Prevention Pay For Itself?
  • How Does Snap Participation Affect Rates of Diabetes?
  • Does Overeating Sugar Cause Diabetes, Cavities, Acne, Hyperactivity and Make You Fat?
  • Why Diabetes Mellitus and How It Affects the United States?
  • Does Alcohol Decrease the Risk of Diabetes?
  • How Does a Person With Diabetes Feel?
  • Does Periodontal Inflammation Affect Type 1 Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence?
  • How Can the Paleolithic Diet Control Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How Does Insulin Help Diabetes Be Controlled?
  • Does Economic Status Matter for the Regional Variation of Malnutrition-Related Diabetes?
  • How Can Artificial Intelligence Technology Be Used to Treat Diabetes?
  • What Are the Main Causes and Treatments of Diabetes?
  • What Evidence Exists for Treatments Depression With Comorbid Diabetes Using Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products?
  • Why Was Qualitative Method Chosen for Diabetes Program Evaluation?
  • What Are the Three Types of Diabetes?
  • How Does Poverty Affect Diabetes?
  • What Is the Leading Cause of Diabetes?
  • How Is Diabetes Diagnosed?
  • What Are the Main Symptoms of Diabetes?
  • How Diabetes Adversely Affects Your Body?
  • What Are the Most Common Symptoms of Undiagnosed Diabetes?
  • Epigenetics Essay Titles
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271 Diabetes Essay Topics, Research Questions, & Presentation Titles

If you’re looking for diabetes-related research topics, you’re at the right place! StudyCorgi has prepared a list of interesting diabetes thesis topics, presentation titles, and essay ideas to write about. Read on to discover the most engaging diabetes project titles and research questions!

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  • Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Reflection on Diabetes Program
  • Comparison of Type 1 and 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes: Causes and Effects of Disease
  • Diabetes and Diabetic Foot
  • Diabetes Management in Primary Care
  • The Ageing and Diabetes Care
  • Caring for Patients With Diabetes This paper contains recommendations on caring for patients with diabetes mellitus, mainly providing a warm welcome to the patient in the clinic.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Discussion Diabetes mellitus type 1, normally known as Type 1 Diabetes, is a type of diabetes that is caused by the lack of insulin resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing cells.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in a 50-Year-Old Male This paper contains a description and analysis of vulnerability and an appropriate holistic care plan for a 50-year-old male with type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Type 2 Self-Management Education The concept of diabetes self-management comprises several activities aimed to alleviate disease symptoms: medication intake, physical exercise, and diet.
  • Diabetes Type 2 Treatment and Health Promotion The purpose of this paper is to develop evidence-based management and a plan for a patient with diabetes type 2 and describe health promotion and possible follow-up.
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Nursing Practice Gestational diabetes mellitus is widely debated as one of the controversial and less-researched medical conditions. Nurses play an important role in the treatment of GDM.
  • Diabetes: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Cures Diabetes mellitus is a group of endocrine diseases that develop as a result of an absolute or relative deficiency of the hormone insulin.
  • Diabetes in Children: The Prevalence and Prevention The Canadian Pediatric Association has laid down several recommendations in order to prevent the spread of the disease: encouraging physical activities, and a healthy diet, etc.
  • Diabetes Patient and Holistic Nursing Intervention The nurse-led diabetes intervention and care management is an effective method of treatment for the acute problems caused by the illness and prevention of the adverse outcomes.
  • Homeostatic Imbalance and Diabetes Symptoms The choice of treatment methods for diabetes mellitus depends on the type of disease, but any form of the disease requires a compulsory diet, exercise, and physical activity.
  • Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 and Its Causes This paper analyzes the causes of diabetes. They vary depending on genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health, and environmental factors.
  • Pathophysiology of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus is a type of diabetes that is characterized by a reduced production of the ADH (antidiuretic hormone) also known as vasopressin in the body.
  • Type II Diabetes: Disease Analysis Diabetes is one of the diseases that can cause several complications on patients. Evidence has revealed that diabetic complication range from stroke, heart disease or death.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Overview and Analysis Diabetes which is medically referred to as diabetes mellitus, is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to the lack of production or action of insulin in the body.
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Its Pathophysiology Diabetes mellitus is a disease that results in the increase of sugar level in the blood due to the inability of the body to produce sufficient insulin.
  • Nutrition Impact in Developing Type II Diabetes Mellitus Type II diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that affects the production and use of insulin in the body facilitating the uptake of glucose (blood sugar).
  • Clinical Narrative: Conversation With a 30-Years-Old Woman With Diabetes This clinical narrative will outline a conversation with a patient that prompted a reflection about a nurse of the future.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Self-Management The paper indicates a rising trend in diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Individuals who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes need information on self-management.
  • Diabetes: Anatomy and Physiology This paper analyses how diabetes affects the various body parts and the treatment and prevention methods. It is a condition that causes difficulties.
  • Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Low-Income Communities: An Ethical Aspect Poor quality of life leads to widespread diabetes mellitus, especially among low-income communities. It creates an ethical dilemma that requires the attention of the authorities.
  • Impacts of Nutrition on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus The purpose of this article is to highlight the contribution of nutrition to Type 2 diabetes mellitus – the most prevalent type of diabetes amid adults.
  • Transition’s Impact for Patients With Diabetes The process of transition plays an important role in ensuring that the health care needs of a patient are adequately met after they have been discharged from a hospital.
  • Metformin for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Metformin is not metabolized by the organism: research in patients shows that the drug is excreted unaltered in the urine with not metabolites identified.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Diabetes Nursing Care While all nurses should be familiar with the importance of evidence-based practice in enhancing patient outcomes, few have received formal education on how to implement it.
  • Role of Physical Activity in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes The paper analyzes facts on the interlinkages between metabolic outcomes, physical activity levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, and strategies.
  • Type 1 Diabetes in Children: Genetic and Environmental Factors The prevalence rate of type 1 diabetes in children raises the question of the role of genetic and environmental factors in the increasing cases of this illness.
  • Diabetes: Etiology and Expected Treatment Options This paper is a diabetes case study of a patient who has type I diabetes and has not been managing her blood sugars since she’s been ill and unable to keep any food down.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Cost-Effective Solution for India At present, a large number of people are experiencing health complications due to a sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activities, poor nutritional habits, and SUD.
  • Digital Health Interventions for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes “Digital health interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes” is aimed to determine the patients’ perceptions about the diabetes self-management education (DSME) limitation.
  • Diabetes Mellitus of Type I vs. Type II Unhealthy eating habits, obesity, and an inactive lifestyle are the most common associations with diabetes. These factors are among the main reasons for developing Type 2 diabetes.
  • Which Type of Diabetes Begins in Childhood or Adolescence?
  • Can Coffee Reduce the Risk of Diabetes?
  • How Does a Child Get Childhood Diabetes?
  • What Factor Is Most Predictive of Successful Compliance With Diabetes Treatment?
  • Can Exercising and Dieting Prevent People From Type 2 Diabetes?
  • What Is a Health Promotion Strategy for Diabetes?
  • How Can We Prevent Diabetes in Children?
  • What Are the Risk Factors and Complications of Diabetes?
  • Can Food Stamps Help to Reduce Medicare Spending on Diabetes?
  • How Is Childhood Diabetes Effectively Managed?
  • What Affects the Quality of Life for People With Type 1 Diabetes?
  • Does Diabetes Affect Cardiovascular Health?
  • Can a Child Get Diabetes From Eating Too Much Sugar?
  • What Are the 7 Steps to Control Diabetes?
  • How Can Diabetes Management Be Improved?
  • What Are the Components of a Successful Diabetes Care Team?
  • Can Diabetes Go Away if You Lose Weight?
  • When Does Type 1 Diabetes Need Insulin?
  • What Is the Average Lifespan of a Person With Type 2 Diabetes?
  • Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Controlled Without Medication?
  • What Are Some of the Latest Advances in the Treatment of Diabetes?
  • Does Stress Cause Gestational Diabetes?
  • How Has Treatment for Diabetes Changed Over the Years?
  • Can a Child Live a Normal Life With Diabetes?
  • What Is the Best Way to Manage Diabetes?
  • Childhood Diabetes in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia has one of the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world. Five-year research determines that Saudi Arabia has an adult diabetes prevalence rate of 23.7%.
  • Social Epidemiology: Diabetes Mellitus in Australian Indigenous People People are advised to engage in physical activity, take a balanced diet, avoid stress, and reduce food and drinks with high levels of sugar.
  • Reducing Diabetic Foot Incidence and Its Related Complications Complications arising from the diabetic foot are caused by deep infections and gangrene, which increase the risk of the amputation of the lower limb.
  • The Type II Diabetes in Obese Children Approximately 10% of school-going children aged between 5 years and 17 years can be described to be obese; a quarter of them are at a heightened risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Self-Management Education in Elderly This project proposal depicts the major details of the study aimed at improving the health outcomes of older adults suffering from diabetes through the provision of training.
  • Type-2 Diabetes: Condition and Resources Analysis Type-2 diabetes is an increasingly prevalent health issue in the US, and its early onset has an aggressive disease phenotype and leads to unfavorable long-term prognosis.
  • Insulin Pump Therapy in Diabetes This paper explores a study conducted by Johnson, Copper, Jones, and Davis to determine the long-term effect of using insulin pump therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes in children.
  • Improving Diabetes Lifestyle Diabetes is one of the health conditions affecting many people in different corners of the world. Individuals and family members affected by the condition should lead healthy lives.
  • Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes The development of hypertension and diabetes stems from the use of Glucocorticoid medications. Glucocorticoids increases blood glucose production in the liver.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Diabetes in Canada Type 2 diabetes is a disease that presents a great danger to the life of a human being, and there is currently no cure for it.
  • Obesity, Diabetes and Self-Care The paper discusses being overweight or obese is a high-risk factor for diabetes mellitus and self-care among middle-aged diabetics is a function of education and income.
  • Evidence-Based Practice Project on Diabetes A fundamental component of early Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment is patient education, which in turn sets the foundation for effective treatment.
  • Annotated Bibliography to Health Literacy, Self-Care and Patients With Diabetes This annotated bibliography covers topics related to health literacy, self-care, and glycemic control among others in patients with diabetes.
  • Prevention of Type II Diabetes This article is devoted to the prevention of type 2 diabetes: the factors that can trigger the disease, as well as the categories of people who are at risk, are considered.
  • Type 1 Diabetes in Children Type 1 diabetes is a major problem among young members of the population because they become infringed from their earliest years.
  • Care Plan For the Patient With the Type 2 Diabetes The patients with the diagnosis of Diabetes type 2 require complex care of the professionals in different spheres, of the so-called diabetes care team.
  • Diabetes Conference as a Scholarly Activity I chose to attend a conference on diabetes held by Baptist Health South Florida, a non-profit medical organization. Diabetes is a too broad topic to be explained in a single day.
  • Diabetes in African American Patients This research project addresses the implications of diabetes for African American patients and reviews the possible ways of treating it.
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment and Management Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with different complications. The disease can occur naturally and make it impossible for many patients to lead quality lives.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Patients Care Plan The current paper dwells on the elaboration of a care plan for type 2 diabetes patients. The mortality rates connected to type 2 diabetes grow bigger with every other year.
  • Insulin Pharmacological Effects in Diabetes Management Insulin is a protein-peptide hormone produced by β-cells of the pancreas. This paper describes pharmacological properties and the effects of insulin in diabetes management.
  • Type II Diabetes in Evidence-Based Pharmacology In this paper, diabetes mellitus (DM type 2) will be reviewed through a synthesis of relevant information about its pathophysiology, genomic issues, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • Diabetes in Evidence-Based Nursing Practice The paper analyzes “Diabetic Foot Ulcer: An Evidence-Based Treatment Update” and “Assessment of Diabetes-Related Knowledge among Nursing Staff in a Hospital Setting”.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type II: Diagnosis and Treatment Type II diabetes is caused by a combination of amplified tissue struggle to insulin, scarce insulin emission, or the surplus secretion of glucagon.
  • A Diabetes-Related PICOT (Research) Question The study of the PICOT question involves the search and systematization of sources to find the most relevant evidence.
  • Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes A nurse should not recommend medical treatment for excess weight to a patient who has not tried traditional methods of treatment.
  • The Role Exercise Plays in Diabetes Prevention The paper states that exercise has a critical role in preventing diabetes. It helps control cholesterol, weight, blood glucose, and blood pressure.
  • Ketones Diet and Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus The paper synthesizes evidence-based practices in nursing that can equip care providers with the necessary knowledge to educate diabetic patients.
  • Healthy Lifestyle Program Impact on Type 2 Diabetes Patients The purpose of the paper is comparing the clinical results of exercise program implementation and conventional therapy in terms of type 2 diabetes interventions.
  • Aspects of the Epidemiology of Diabetes The paper discusses the epidemiology of diabetes. It provides information about diabetes mellitus, explains the types of it, and shows how it varies.
  • Significance of the Diabetes Issue The paper states that diabetes is a severe health issue characterized by a high spread level and a range of symptoms that require constant monitoring.
  • Diabetes Disease, Its Prevention and Treatment This paper states that the critical element of achieving success in the precluding of diabetes and its complications appears to be the prevention of diabetes.
  • The Diabetes Epidemic in the United States Diabetes is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in the United States. This is a pressing issue for the nation, especially for nurses and doctors.
  • Diabetes: Types, Causes, and Complications Diabetes is a serious and dangerous disease that, if untreated, can cause severe health problems or lead to death. There are several types of diabetes.
  • Diabetes: Causes, Treatment, and Magnitude The importance of such problem as diabetes is obvious. This disease is the fastest growing in the world at the moment, taking a significant burden on healthcare professionals.
  • Social Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes: Ecosocial Perspective The diaTribe Foundation aims to address the urgent issue of increased diabetes prevalence among racial minorities, who have poor awareness of diabetes.
  • Habits to Prevent Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes The paper aims to raise awareness among various racial groups in Las Vegas about good preventive habits that prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.
  • What is the role of gut microbiota in the development of insulin resistance?
  • How to improve the accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring systems?
  • What are the long-term effects of bariatric surgery for diabetes management?
  • How does sleep quality influence glycemic control?
  • How can telemedicine enhance diabetes care?
  • What is the impact of diabetes on cognitive function and brain health?
  • What are the best practices for diabetes prevention in children?
  • What are the barriers to older adults’ diabetes self-management?
  • How does gestational diabetes affect maternal and fetal health?
  • How does continuous glucose monitoring impact patients’ quality of life?
  • Type 2 Diabetes Prevention in Racial Minorities: Lifestyle Changes To help diabetic patients control weight loss, well-trained nurses need to promote education on healthy diets and physical activities.
  • Incretin Mimetic Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes In patients with type 2 diabetes, there is a significant decrease in the incretin effect and a decrease in insulin secretion in response to an oral load.
  • Discussion: Diabetes in the United States Diabetes diagnoses are more common in individuals who have completed high school or earned a GED, or have some college education than in those who hold a bachelor’s degree or higher.
  • Diabetes Patient Case Study: Endocrinology Mr. X’s situation can be analyzed through the lens of social determinants. The first determinant is health care access and quality.
  • The Current Trends of Patients With Diabetes The study aims to observe the current trends of patients with diabetes aged sixty-five or older within the selected healthcare setting.
  • Interventions Preventing Diabetes Development The patient was diagnosed with prediabetes three months ago. Possible interventions to prevent the development of diabetes type two were unable to succeed.
  • Diabetes Health Care Information Collection This work aims at proposing a method of collecting information associated with diabetes, such as demographics, medications used, and other data.
  • Reaching Optimal Health With Type 2 Diabetes To combat the symptoms of this disease and its consequences, it is necessary to adjust nutrition, which will normalize the level of insulin in the human body.
  • Effects of Diabetes on Quality of Care in Massachusetts The patient involved was a male relative who is diabetic and receives treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital.
  • Epidemic of Type 2 Diabetes Among Hispanic Males Diabetes is a disease with a very high prevalence of 19% among Hispanic males. It is more common among Hispanics than all other races.
  • Role of Genes in Diabetes Development Diabetes is a global pandemic whose effects cause immeasurable burden to the globe. About ten percent of the world’s population suffers from diabetes currently.
  • Symptoms of Type I Diabetes The paper discusses the possible symptoms inherent to diabetes. They are unmotivated weak, have drowsiness, persistent thirst, and have dry mouths.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Information Collection This work aims at reviewing legislative considerations, collecting information and its life cycle, which are associated with diabetes.
  • Type 1 Diabetes and Appropriate Therapeutic Diet The food intake and knowledge needed can be related to the education and subsequent application of the therapeutic diet.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Study Purpose, Design and Results Study results showed the developed glucose control and prompted variations in the muscle that are associated with improvement in metabolic wellbeing in type two diabetes patients.
  • Evidence-Based Practices to Reduce the Risks of Diabetes A person’s lifestyle can directly affect their health in various ways. An unhealthy lifestyle can lead to a diverse range of diseases later in life.
  • Supporting Patients With Diabetes in U.S. The central problem that this essay raises describes the characteristics of the U.S. health care system in supporting patients with diabetes.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Etiology Decreased insulin sensitivity in the muscle, tissue, and liver leads to increased insulin production by beta cells of the pancreas.
  • Diabetes: Community Teaching The community setting is the Adult Day Care Center, yet this teaching plan also applies to hospitals and clinics with a high influx of diabetes patients.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Management in Primary School Children The care plan for children with type 2 diabetes implies meeting specific objectives for managing the condition of this population group in the context of educational facilities.
  • Awareness on Diabetes Causes and Treatment The need to increase awareness of diabetes causes and treatment is the reason why precisely this disease is chosen for this study.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Children and Adolescents The increase of T2DM among children and adolescents in the last five years has surfaced in parallel with a surprising rise in the number of young people who are obese.
  • Diabetes: Overview of the Problem and Treatment The percentage of people who have diabetes has increased lately due to the sedentary lifestyle that many individuals select.
  • The Importance of Diabetes Prevention Education Diabetes has become a significant threat to society that’s why the annotated bibliography was selected to ensure that readers can acquire information regarding the disease.
  • Scientific Method: The Risk of Contracting Diabetes The paper discusses that drinking coffee may reduce the risk of contracting diabetes. The control group produced a significant increase in blood sugar levels.
  • Problem of Diabetes in the Elderly Despite the efforts made by health care organizations around the world, the number of people with diabetes is expected to grow.
  • Educating the Client on Diabetes Medications In order to ascertain the reasons for polypharmacy, an interview was conducted with a client who takes several medications at once.
  • Diabetes in African Americans and Effectiveness of Educational Sessions According to the Diabetes Research Institute Foundation, over a tenth of the population has diabetes and related conditions, and the number of new cases continues to rise rapidly.
  • Management of Type 2 Diabetes Metformin is an antihyperglycemic drug prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes to increase their glucose tolerance.
  • Australian Government Policy Response to Diabetes Mellitus Type II It is highly necessary to inform the health officer trainees about the main constraints and challenges that should be considered to handle the problem of diabetes pandemic.
  • Diabetes Community Health Programs in Florida The discussion examines how the quality of life in Florida correlates with diabetes and proposed a powerful program for dealing with diabetes in children.
  • Diabetes Prevention Lessons in the Community This paper discusses the problem of diabetes prevention in the community, elaborates the teaching plans to help all stakeholders affected by the diabetes problem.
  • Understanding Biostatiscal Principles with Diabetes This paper is meant to review the effectiveness of Biostatistics applied by the information/news medium in communicating diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 related information.
  • Patient Engagement in Type 2 Diabetes The presented research is not exactly in line with the existing literature since it does not demonstrate a statistically significant effect of the selected method by Smith et al.
  • Community Obesity and Diabetes: Mississippi Focus Study The paper provides a detailed discussion of the correct method to be used in the state of Mississippi to control and avoid obesity and diabetes issues.
  • Endocrine Disorders: Diabetes Mellitus This artticle describes Diabetes Mellitus, its etiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and nursing considerations.
  • Weight Training and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men Should research in media if the claim that little exercise is adequate to minimize the risk of type two diabetes.
  • Microbiome matters: the link between gut microbiota and diabetes.
  • Diabetes and the aging brain: cognitive impacts on older adults.
  • Addressing cultural disparities in diabetes care.
  • The complex relationship between diabetes and heart health.
  • The influence of stress on diabetes development.
  • Beyond blood sugar: the multi-organ effects of diabetes.
  • The benefits of a plant-based diet for diabetes.
  • Can type 2 diabetes be reversed?
  • Unique challenges of adults with latent autoimmune diabetes.
  • Diabetes and reproductive health: the impact on fertility.
  • Childhood Diabetes in Saudi Arabia: The Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes Among Children Diabetes is one of the major chronic ailments facing children in Saudi Arabia. This trend has been observed in recent years.
  • Community Prevention: Type 2-Diabetes in California Community-based programs on prevention and control of type 2-diabetes will incorporate approximately four intensive and core sessions that will be offered every year.
  • Diabetes Education Skills for Low Grade Literacy Patients This article is a guide for nurses to help them explain diabetes to patients with low medical literacy in simple terms.
  • Reducing the Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Foot in the Veteran Population The research proposes to use a comprehensive education program to reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot in the Veteran population.
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Characteristics, Epidemiology Type 1 diabetes exhibits different characteristics depending on the person suffering from the disease, place, and time.
  • Smartphone Role in Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management The current research paper endeavors to explore mat-analysis studies and past research studies on the role played by smartphones in type 2 diabetes self-management.
  • Smartphone Application and Diabetes Reminder Management The proposed intervention implies the implementation of smartphone applications aimed at managing diabetes, the intervention has a lot of advantages.
  • Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Treatment, Pathophysiology The lack of sufficient antidiuretic hormone in the body results in diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus can be managed by taking high amounts of fluids to keep the body hydrated.
  • Type II Diabetes: Pathophysiology, Initial Signs, Symptoms, This paper discusses pathophysiology associated with type 2 diabetes, initial signs, symptoms, and type of vascular changes that occur early in type II diabetes.
  • Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes Guidelines The research paper recommends that ADA and other health bodies should customize DSME so that it can suit the needs of diverse patients in different unique communities.
  • Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Inhaled Insulin Therapy The paper will focus on glycaemic control for patients with diabetes mellitus and will attempt to identify whether the use of inhaled insulin is beneficial for these patients.
  • The Diabetes Study of Northern California The population-based study shows that Latinos in the United States are disproportionately affected by diabetes type-2 and have poor glycemic control.
  • Lived Experience of Diabetes Among Older, Rural People The implied research question is, “what are the most significant issues associated with the self-management of diabetes among the elderly?”
  • Diabetes Diagnosis: The Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles This paper will discuss the use of magnetic nanoparticles in the diagnosis of diabetes, its application in the children population, and its relevance to the nursing profession.
  • “Bariatric Surgery v. Conventional Medical Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes” by Mingrone This paper critiqued a study “Bariatric surgery versus conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes” that aimed to compare traditional medical therapy and bariatric surgery.
  • Depression Intervention Among Diabetes Patients The research examines the communication patterns used by depression care specialist nurses when communicating with patients suffering from diabetes.
  • The New Jersey Diabetes Prevention and Control Program The aim of the New Jersey Diabetes Prevention and Control Program is to mitigate the high level of type II diabetes in the target population, through education on lifestyle.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Self-Administer Insulin The importance of patient education to facilitate primary health care skills and knowledge in vulnerable populations has been broadly addressed in scholarly literature.
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology This paper explains Type 1 diabetes. The causes, symptoms, therapeutic procedures, and management procedures of the disease are also explained.
  • Diabetes and Tuberculosis: Review of Articles in Nursing This paper discusses articles in nursing about different issues related to diabetes, trends in prevalence and control, and also about tuberculosis treatment.
  • Reduction of Kidney Failure Due to Diabetes This proposal aims to outline the project’s matter for future advanced practice because of the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its vast economic and health consequences.
  • Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus This article discusses in detail how type 2 diabetes develops over time in patients with metabolic syndrome, focusing on the pathophysiological changes that occur.
  • Diabetes Type 2 and Related Lifestyle Challenges Diabetes is continuously becoming a big challenge. There is more than one type of diabetes: type 2 seems to be the most challenging one.
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Foot Evaluation The research proposes to use a comprehensive education program to reduce incidences of diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot in the population.
  • Screening and Management of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes Guidelines Health care systems across the world are employing diverse screening strategies and criteria in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus among the population.
  • Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Low-Income Communities The present paper offers a review of literature on the major reasons for diabetes prevalence in low-income communities.
  • Diabetes: Danger Factors Analysis Diabetes is one of the most common diseases that older people are most affected by it. Danger factors include many points.
  • Nursing Diabetes and Obesity Patients Nursing diabetes and obese patients are regarded as one of the most serious problems of contemporary nursing practices.
  • Increasing Diabetes Infections Among the Hispanic Populations The article’s objective is centered around establishing whether chronic stress makes US Hispanics more susceptible to diabetes.
  • Study of the Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects many systems in the body; it has both anatomical and biochemical consequences, which are manifested in various ways.
  • Type II Diabetes: Treatments Metformin is the most common drug recommended for treating type II diabetes. This drug lowers blood glucose level by reducing the production of insulin.
  • Diabetes in American Society To get prepared for diabetes, it is important to learn diabetes triggers, causes, complications, and other characteristics.
  • A Peer Group Support in Intervention for Adolescent With Type One Diabetes Adolescents with diabetes usually experience difficulties in their physical, emotional, and social stress emerging from the complex medication regimen they have to comply with.
  • Chronic Bronchitis, Heart Failure, Hypertension, and Diabetes Mellitus This paper discusses the symptoms and causes of such diseases as chronic bronchitis, heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus.
  • Diabetes Type 1 and 2 Preventive Measures Diabetes is a common disease that can lead to adverse consequences for humans’ overall health if not treated properly.
  • Effects of Intensive Blood-Pressure Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Blood pressure in diabetic patients remains controversial. The uncertainty surrounding its control complicates patients’ care as the risk of future cardiac events grows.
  • The Prevalence of Diabetes in the Elderly From 2000 to 2009 The endeavor of this review is to determine the occurrence of diabetes in the American populace for the period spanning 2000 to 2009.
  • The Connection Between Apoptosis and Diabetes
  • Mobile Apps for Diabetes Mellitus Patients Research
  • Diabetes: Preventive Measures and Diagnostics
  • Diabetes Care Team Best Practices
  • Type II Diabetes Mellitus Overview
  • The Role of Significant Others in Adolescent Diabetes, A Qualitative Study by Carroll and Marrero
  • Incidence of Diabetes in the United States
  • How Diabetes Works: Medical Analysis
  • Mexican American Children and Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes Chronic Condition Management
  • Mindful Eating Intervention and Diabetes Self-Management Intervention
  • Patient Education Technology: MySugr Diabetes Logbook
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Self-Care Education
  • Insulin Pump Therapy in Children with Diabetes
  • Evaluation of the Clinical Outcomes of Telehealth for Managing Diabetes
  • Impact of Establishing a Communication Network of Family Physicians on Level of Hba1c and FBS in Patients With Diabetes
  • Integrative Review on Adherence in Haitians With Diabetes
  • Preventing Diabetes and Heart Failure Hospitalizations
  • Diabetes Issues in the United States and Florida
  • Diabetes Control and Education: Four-Week Project
  • Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Patients
  • Bariatric Surgery in Type 2 Diabetes Management
  • The Use of Diabetes Self-Management Apps by African-American Women
  • Older Rural People with Diabetes: Life Expectancy
  • EHR Database Management: Diabetes Prevention
  • Diabetes Management for Older Adults in Long-Term Care
  • Diabetes Mellitus II: Screening and Statistics
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Possible Interventions and Prevention
  • Type 2 Diabetes, Risk Factors, Medical Intervention
  • Developmental Care for Type 1 Diabetes
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Diabetes Prevalence
  • Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy and Diabetes
  • Educational Programs for Hispanic Patients with Diabetes
  • Diabetes Negligence in the Pediatric Population
  • Diabetes in Children: Symptoms and Diagnostics
  • Foot Ulcers Management in Diabetes Patients
  • Diabetes in Adolescents, Social and Medical Issues
  • Education Strategies for Elderly Patients with Diabetes
  • Diabetes Interventions for Aging African Americans
  • Chronic Fatigue in Diabetes
  • Diabetes Diagnosis and Classification
  • Type II Diabetes Treatment
  • Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Patient Teaching
  • Diabetes 2 Complications: Neuropathy and Retinopathy
  • Weight Gain, Atherosclerosis, Diabetes Relationship
  • Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Risk Assessment Models for Diabetes Complications
  • Diabetes Among Hispanics in Miami: Risk Factors
  • Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China
  • Diabetes and Status among Immigrants in California
  • Chronic Disease: Diabetes Mellitus
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults
  • Diabetes Genetic Risks in Diagnostics
  • Patients With Diabetes and Concomitant Diseases’ Risk
  • Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Using Dulaglutide in the Treatment of Patients with Diabetes
  • Diabetic Nutritional Plan For a 15-Year-Old Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient
  • Diabetes Treatment: Computer-Based Intervention
  • Diabetes: Country Walk Community’s Health Problem
  • Wound Care Tests in Diabetes
  • Treatment and Advances in Diabetes
  • Type II Diabetes: Patient Case Study
  • Types of Diabetes Mellitus: Role of Insulin
  • Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Supporting Resources
  • Diabetes and Its Economic Cost in the United States
  • Food Diversion as a Type-2 Diabetes Treatment
  • The Most Acute Problems With Patients With Diabetes
  • Diabetes in American Adolescents and Its Effects
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
  • Diabetes and Possible Interventions
  • Diabetes and Dementia Relationships and Nursing
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Adolescents
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Disease Process and Screening
  • Overweight Diabetes Patients With Cardiovascular Risk
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Integrated Management
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
  • “Prandial Inhaled Insulin Plus Basal Insulin Glargine Versus Twice Daily Biaspart Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes: A Multicentre Randomised Trial”: Article Review

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StudyCorgi. (2021, September 9). 271 Diabetes Essay Topics, Research Questions, & Presentation Titles. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/diabetes-essay-topics/

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1. StudyCorgi . "271 Diabetes Essay Topics, Research Questions, & Presentation Titles." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/diabetes-essay-topics/.


StudyCorgi . "271 Diabetes Essay Topics, Research Questions, & Presentation Titles." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/diabetes-essay-topics/.

StudyCorgi . 2021. "271 Diabetes Essay Topics, Research Questions, & Presentation Titles." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/diabetes-essay-topics/.

These essay examples and topics on Diabetes were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on January 22, 2024 .

Essay on Diabetes for Students and Children

500+ words essay on diabetes.

Diabetes is a very common disease in the world. But people may never realize, how did they get diabetes and what will happen to them and what will they go through. It may not be your problem but you have to show respect and care for the one who has diabetes. It can help them and also benefited you to know more about it and have a better understanding of it. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which is identified by the high blood sugar level. Increased blood glucose level damages the vital organs as well as other organs of the human’s body causing other potential health ailments.

essay on diabetes

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes  Mellitus can be described in two types:

Description of two types of Diabetes Mellitus are as follows

1) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is classified by a deficiency of insulin in the blood. The deficiency is caused by the loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This type of diabetes is found more commonly in children. An abnormally high or low blood sugar level is a characteristic of this type of Diabetes.

Most patients of type 1 diabetes require regular administration of insulin. Type 1 diabetes is also hereditary from your parents. You are most likely to have type 1 diabetes if any of your parents had it. Frequent urination, thirst, weight loss, and constant hunger are common symptoms of this.

2) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by the inefficiency of body tissues to effectively respond to insulin because of this it may be combined by insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes in people.

People with type 2 diabetes mellitus take medicines to improve the body’s responsiveness to insulin or to reduce the glucose produced by the liver. This type of diabetes mellitus is generally attributed to lifestyle factors like – obesity, low physical activity, irregular and unhealthy diet, excess consumption of sugar in the form of sweets, drinks, etc.

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Causes of Diabetes

By the process of digestion, food that we eat is broken down into useful compounds. One of these compounds is glucose, usually referred to as blood sugar. The blood performs the job of carrying glucose to the cells of the body. But mere carrying the glucose to the cells by blood isn’t enough for the cells to absorb glucose.

This is the job of the Insulin hormone. Pancreas supply insulin in the human body. Insulin acts as a bridge for glucose to transit from blood to the body cells. The problem arises when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body cells for some reason do not receive the glucose. Both the cases result in the excess of glucose in the blood, which is referred to as Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Most common symptoms of diabetes are fatigue, irritation, stress, tiredness, frequent urination and headache including loss of strength and stamina, weight loss, increase in appetite, etc.

Levels of Diabetes

There are two types of blood sugar levels – fasting blood sugar level and postprandial blood sugar level. The fasting sugar level is the sugar level that we measure after fasting for at least eight hours generally after an overnight fast. Blood sugar level below 100 mg/dL before eating food is considered normal. Postprandial glucose level or PP level is the sugar level which we measure after two hours of eating.

The PP blood sugar level should be below 140 mg/dL, two hours after the meals. Though the maximum limit in both the cases is defined, the permissible levels may vary among individuals. The range of the sugar level varies with people. Different people have different sugar level such as some people may have normal fasting sugar level of 60 mg/dL while some may have a normal value of 90 mg/dL.

Effects of Diabetes

Diabetes causes severe health consequences and it also affects vital body organs. Excessive glucose in blood damages kidneys, blood vessels, skin resulting in various cardiovascular and skin diseases and other ailments. Diabetes damages the kidneys, resulting in the accumulation of impurities in the body.

It also damages the heart’s blood vessels increasing the possibility of a heart attack. Apart from damaging vital organs, diabetes may also cause various skin infections and the infection in other parts of the body. The prime cause of all type of infections is the decreased immunity of body cells due to their inability to absorb glucose.

Diabetes is a serious life-threatening disease and must be constantly monitored and effectively subdued with proper medication and by adapting to a healthy lifestyle. By following a healthy lifestyle, regular checkups, and proper medication we can observe a healthy and long life.

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Diabetes - Free Essay Samples And Topic Ideas

Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood due to insulin production issues or the body’s response to insulin. Essays on diabetes could delve into the types of diabetes, its prevalence, management strategies, and the impact on individuals and communities. Discussions might also explore ongoing research and advancements in diabetes care. A substantial compilation of free essay instances related to Diabetes you can find in Papersowl database. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

A Problem of Hispanics with Diabetes

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Clinical Problem of Diabetes Type i and II

Abstract This capstone paper integrates the current clinical problem of diabetes type I and II in the hospitalized adult and youth patients with the associated QSEN nursing competency of patient centered care by addressing and exploring the following question: Among patients with Diabetes, how does diabetes self-management education programs (DSME) compared with no diabetes self-management education programs affect diabetic self-care/self-management? After an introduction of the problem and its significance to patient centered care, a review of current research literature that […]

King’s Theory and Nursing Process

My institution, Overlake Hospital has a multidisciplinary diabetes inpatient team that include, endocrinologists, diabetes specialist podiatrist, nurses, wound care specialist, dietitian and social workers. Often patients expressed their concern and fear over not being able to self-manage their condition. Lack of knowledge on how to treat, lack of understanding of proper food choices, exercise regimen and overwhelming burden of this chronic disease causes depression. Our interdisciplinary team focuses on care for each and every individual's complex need and educate, train […]

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General Characteristic of Type II Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Background about the disease- Type 2 Diabetes is a disorder caused by an imbalance of insulin. It is the more common form of diabetes, mostly seen in adults but now increasingly observed in young adults as well. Also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, this lifelong disease causes your blood glucose level to rise above the normal range. Pathophysiology and causes- Type 2 diabetes stems from several factors. It can develop when your body becomes resistant to insulin or […]

Keto Diet and Type Diabetes

Some people experience autoimmune diseases while others do not. Maybe you have tried to understand how changes in your diet might help an autoimmune disease. Or maybe you are worried that what you are eating is contributing to it? Perhaps you are someone that is suffering from type 1 diabetes and wonder how the ketogenic (referred to as “keto”) diet might help to ease some of the symptoms. We want to assist you in choosing fuel for your body that […]

Importance of Nursing Theories

Nursing theories are important tools for the designing, understanding, and application of diabetes patient education (Anderson, Funnell, & Hernandez, 2005). Imogene King is one of the nursing theorists who has made significant contributions to nursing. King's Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (TGA) is valuable in the care of diabetes patients and adherence to treatment. In my unit most commonly-used nursing theories include, King's theory of goal attainment to the care of the adult with diabetes mellitus. TGA theory […]

History and Types of Diabetes

The first sign of diabetes was discovered in 1500 B.C.E by the Egyptians. According to one study, ancient Indians were familiar with the condition and had even determined two types of the condition. They called it "honey urine" and tested for it by determining if the ants were drawn to the urine. The first mention of the word diabetes was by the Greeks. It means "to go through", it was named this because of its main symptom: the excessive passing […]

The Basic Problem of Diabetes

Uncontrolled levels of blood glucose are the basic problem in patients admitted to our unit. Many are related to lack of knowledge and self-care in diabetes management, sedentary lifestyle, and food habits. This reveals that when assessing a patient in the hospital, a nurse must consider all factors and design a care plan accordingly. Nurses need to be non-judgmental and assess what factors may limit patients' abilities to follow lifestyle recommendations. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), uncontrolled blood […]

My Work as a Nurse

I work at Overlake Hospital Medical Center on a Medical Surgical and Oncology Unit. As a bedside nurse, my job and responsibility not only centered around vigilant monitoring for physiological changes and immediate needs of patients but also centered around an emotional aspect of caring and advocating. Our 37-bed unit provides care for various medical-surgical conditions, chemotherapy infusion, blood transfusion, dialysis, oncology with hospice, and end of life care patients on a day to day basis. As a bedside nurse, […]

Diabetes and its Main Types

Diabetes is a disorder of the endocrine system, which messes with the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The metabolism is compromised because of a lack of insulin, either from destruction of the beta cells, which secrete insulin, or because of insulin resistance. Insulin is secreted by beta cells and it is what enables the cells to use glucose. Type 1 diabetes was formerly called juvenile diabetes because mostly kids were diagnosed with it. It is now changed to be […]

Adverse Health Effect of Environmental Heavy Metals on Diabetes

ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications constitute a major public health problem for both developed and developing countries due to the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with the disease.  New evidence from both experimental and human studies has resulted in increased interest in analyzing the relationship between T2D and heavy metal exposures that are ubiquitous in the environment. Vellore district is a major leather- processing centre in Tamil Nadu, with an estimated 60,000 tannery workers. Tannery […]

Becoming an Endocrinology Nurse Practitioner

Since the introduction and continued implementation of the Affordable Care Act, millions of individuals now have access to health care who did not before. With this influx of patients in the health care system, there has been an increased demand for primary care providers in a health care environment already dealing with shortage, (Buppert, 2015)A large amount of this population includes patients battling diabetes and hypertension. These patients would benefit from a nurse practitioner specializing in these diseases such as […]

An Issue of Nutrition and Diabetes

The article I've reviewed is called, "Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for the Management of Adults with Diabetes".  My decision to review this article is based upon interest in links with nutrition and chronic disease.  A National Center for Health Statistics study (Table 18) identified eight of the top ten killers in America as chronic diseases.  I've read multiple books that link the two and this article conducted a systematic review of 228 articles or studies.  The article goes fairly in depth […]

How is Low Carbohydrate Diet Beneficial to Diabetes

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What should you Know about Diabetes

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Diabetes: One of the Hardest Illness

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IDDM: Pathophysiology and Pre-hospital Management

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Connection between Genetics and Diabetes

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Diabetes Type One in the Pediatric Patient

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Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

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An Evolution of Diabetes

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Treatment of Diabetes in Adolescents

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What are the Main Causes and Treatments of Diabetes

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Diabetes a Matter of the Heart

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Importance of Speech about Diabetes

On 14th November this year on World Diabetes Day we witnessed an amazing talk by the keynote speaker Dr. Ronny Bell at the University of Florida. The title of the talk was 'Challenges and Opportunities in achieving diabetes health equity.' He spoke about important issues that often get lost and not given too much importance when we talk about diabetes. He mentioned that we all know about the complications, we all know about the emergencies, but what we often don't […]

The Stigma Surrounding Medical Cannabis

My understanding of diabetes.

For this essay I'll be covering the topic of diabetes. I've always found diabetes as an interesting topic; maybe because it's a huge problem for most people in the United States. you might be wonder what diabetes is, Diabetes is a disease in which the body response to the hormone insulin is impaired or not fully functional, resluting  in complications with the metabolism. Having high glucose is also one of the main reasons people get diabetes. Having high glucose in […]

A Process of Teaching Diabetes Self-Management

Introduction You’ve been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes, now what?  The idea and topic of diabetes can be overwhelming for anyone, from patient to provider.  The content outlined in this paper reflects the need for a plan to implement and educate patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes to help them be successful in managing their diabetes and not letting diabetes take control of their lives.  If you think about the idea of diabetes singularly as a diagnosis you have […]

Celiac Disease in Type Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction Celiac disease and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus are both chronic autoimmune diseases exhibiting a steadily increasing prevalence, both in co-occurrence and individually, in the population. The purpose of this review is to outline the literature and studies conducted on Celiac disease in Type 1 diabetes mellitus and the risk factors associated with autoimmune comorbidity. Dietary control is significant to both diseases and plays an essential role in the management of short- and long-term complications. This review will discuss the […]

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Were you assigned an essay on diabetes that requires extensive research? Do you have to distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 and the affected age groups? Perhaps, you need to elaborate on the reasons for this disease and its health implications.

If any of these scenarios seem familiar, stop worrying because we have the solution to all your writing concerns. PapersOwl abounds with free argumentative essays about diabetes written by experts in the medical field. Moreover, the platform offers help with framing your thesis statement for diabetes and the overall outline of your paper. Other tools available on the website include a plagiarism checker, conclusion and citation generators, and a title page maker.

Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition prevalent in children and adults. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the US, claiming over 178,000 lives annually. The disease is complex because the glucose level in the blood is abnormally high and endangers the functioning of other organs. Improper treatment and lack of insulin can lead to life-threatening outcomes; otherwise, diabetics can have a typical life.

Engaging essay topics can include the effects of uncontrolled diabetes, proper diet, ideal body mass, reducing the risk factors, and avoiding a sedentary lifestyle. However, ensure you check at least several free essay examples on diabetes before you write the introduction. You can also consult titles by eminent experts with years of experience to get inspired for your sample research paper on diabetes.

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188 Diabetes Research Topics & Essay Examples

📝 diabetes research papers examples, 💡 essay ideas on diabetes, 👍 good diabetes essay topics to write about, 🏆 best diabetes essay titles, 🎓 simple research topics about diabetes, ❓ diabetes research questions.

Definition The term “diabetes mellitus” refers to a whole group of endocrine diseases, united by a common feature: they are based on disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
Specialty Endocrinology
History The first descriptions of diabetes singled out its most recognizable symptoms – fluid loss (polyuria) and unquenchable thirst (polydipsia). In 1889, Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski showed that a dog develops symptoms of diabetes after pancreatectomy. And in 1910, Sir Edward Albert Sharpay-Schafer suggested that diabetes was caused by a deficiency of a chemical secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
Symptoms In the initial stage, diabetes mellitus has practically no pronounced symptoms. The main signs of diabetes are constant dryness of the mouth, intense thirst with sufficient or excessive fluid intake, and frequent urination. Dry skin, itching sensation in the feet, elbows, legs are also potential symptoms of diabetes. Moreover, sudden and rapid weight gain or loss combined with constant hunger, fatigue, drowsiness, and decreased performance, too, point out to the presence of diabetes.
Causes Today, diabetes is considered polyetiological – there are several theories for the occurrence of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and problems with insulin. A special role is assigned to unfavorable heredity if close relatives suffer from diabetes. In addition, certain factors can trigger the disease, such as poor nutrition with an excess of light carbohydrates, refined foods, fast food, saturated and trans fats, a lack of dietary fiber. Overweight and obesity are also considered potential causes of diabetes.
Prevention In order to maintain health and reduce the risk of developing the disease, it is necessary to control weight, regularly evaluate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and undergo medical examination. Moderate physical activity, drinking enough fluids and a balanced diet with a decrease in carbohydrates, saturated fats, fast food, refined foods are also important.
Diagnostic Method The main laboratory tests confirming diabetes are a blood test for glucose levels, load test to determine glucose tolerance, and biochemical studies (level of protein, lipids, electrolytes).
Treatment The basis of treatment is a combination of non-drug approaches, lifestyle changes with an individual selection of drugs that control the level of glycaemia in diabetes mellitus. Approaches to therapy differ depending on the type of disease.
Duration Diabetes is a chronic disease that remains with the patient till the end of their life.
Prognosis The life expectancy of type 1 diabetics has increased significantly in recent years with the introduction of modern insulins and self-monitoring devices. The prognosis for life in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus strongly correlates with the degree of disease control, and also depends on gender, age, and the presence of complications.
Complications The disease can be complicated by serious pathologies and changes in the body that threaten disability and even threaten life. Severe visual impairment, damage to structures inside the eyeball and its vessels, the formation of persistent hypertension, and lipid metabolism disorders which lead to atherosclerosis are the most common complications of diabetes. Against the background of metabolic disorders, life-threatening conditions such as coma can occur.
Frequency in Population Among all endocrine diseases, diabetes mellitus in women and men is the most common. There are more than 250 million people in the world with different types of this pathology.
Deaths Every year, 3.8 million people die from complications of diabetes, including cardiovascular diseases.
Society Nowadays, diabetes is no longer considered a terrible disease, but a special way of life, provided that the necessary therapy is received.
  • Healthcare Concern: High Rate of Diabetes The primary health concern for Eatonville’s diverse population is a high rate of diabetes. Approximately 24% of residents are suffering from the condition.
  • Patient Teaching Plan: Type II Diabetes The patient's genetic history strongly suggests a risk of developing type II diabetes. Hypertension is a common condition among many of its members.
  • Diabetes Self-Management Education Evidence suggests that web-based education initiatives positively correlate with self-management outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Types and Drug Treatments This paper explores the four types of diabetes, medication applied to manage type 1, and the effects that the condition has on individuals' lives.
  • Diabetes Education for Hispanic Patients This article discusses the question of is continuing patient education effective in improving HgBA1C in diabetic Hispanic patients.
  • Hispanics With Diabetes Mellitus This paper discusses the issue of how effectively does diabetes education improves health outcomes in Hispanics with diabetes mellitus.
  • The Church's Diabetes Self-Management Education Program The main goal of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a multi-faceted church-based diabetes self-management education program. The researchers assessed the impact of this intervention.
  • Various Diabetes Management Activities Diabetes management includes different activities. Education and support are basic aspects of any treatment plan because the disease requires daily monitoring and control performed by a patient.
  • Educational Programs for Patients With Diabetes The effectiveness of educational programs for patients with diabetes is still a relevant issue. Different specialists claim that diabetes self-management education does not adequately address the problems.
  • Diabetes Education Programs for Patients Problems related to diabetes are especially relevant for Latin Americans. There are different methods to address such a problem. One of the most effective approaches is educational programs.
  • Silent Myocardial Infarction and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients who are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 often die from silent myocardial infarction and heart failure.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Educational Plan This paper will outline an education plan for homebound elderly with diabetes. The plan aims to reinforce the population’s understanding of the condition and improve their self-care behaviors.
  • Diabetes and Hypertension Patient's Healthcare Plan This paper presents the healthcare plan of a 49-year-old white woman with a history of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and migraine headaches.
  • Diabetes Prevention in Hispanic Populations Hispanic people face a considerably higher risk of type 2 diabetes due to the lack of knowledge about the condition and poor access to care.
  • Enhancing Diabetes Self-Management The study by George and Thomas was aimed at revealing how the aged (65 years and above) diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes and living in rural areas perceive self-management.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Patient's Support Needs To reduce the probability of contracting type 2 diabetes, it is strongly advisable for the patient to find more information about the disease and possible ways of its prevention.
  • Useful Interventions in Treating Diabetes Diabetes is a chronic disease that mainly affects the older population. This paper discusses useful interventions that have been shown to yield better results.
  • Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes Type 2: Assessment Obesity plays a substantial role in adipocytokine dysregulation which is suggested to be a pathogenic trigger of insulin resistance and other diabetes-related problems.
  • Treatment of Patient: Risk of Diabetes and Hypertension The risk of diabetes is to be reduced with the help of a diet. To evaluate the effectiveness, keep track of BMI and blood sugar level.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension The advantageous method to evaluate the intervention's efficiency is activity log. This element contains all the information about the patient's activities and progresses.
  • Pathophysiology: Diabetes Type 1 and 2 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease; the immune system of the body attacks the beta cells of the pancreas, which results in the elimination of insulin production.
  • Measuring the Global Burden of Disease Community members should identify the best sources of statistical information in order to understand the major illnesses affecting them.
  • Diabetes Evidence-Based Treatment Outcomes Diabetes is associated with a decline in health-related quality of life, so after the intervention, it is reasonable to expect improvements in several areas.
  • Elderly Education on Diabetes: Study Design This paper is meant to study the effect of post-discharge self-management education promotions and techniques for elderly patients with diabetes on health outcomes.
  • Managing the Daily Life of Individuals With Diabetes The suggested teaching plan covers the topic of primary prevention and health promotion. The health problem it comprises is diabetes.
  • A High Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes The purpose of the paper is to overview the type 2 diabetes , describe an evidence-based intervention related to the modifiable risk factor, and suggest a teaching plan for the patient.
  • Hypertension and Type II Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology The clinical findings and physical examination of the patient provide evidence that prove the development of right-sided heart failure.
  • Diabetes Patient: The Impact of Chronic Illness The interview indicates that the patient has accepted her disease and manages it. She is aware of her condition and controls her blood glucose level regularly.
  • The Prevention and Control the Type-2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a widespread health issue that affects many people around the world regardless of age and gender.
  • Diabetes: Disease Analysis Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease. There are three types of diabetes, such as type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.
  • Teaching Patients to Live with Diabetes The lesson informs patients about possible behavioral changes associated with diabetes and prepares them to live under new conditions, requirements and restrictions.
  • Diabetes Management and Pharmacological Effects The research paper provides pharmacological effects of herbal supplements and metformin medication in the management of diabetes and nursing implications.
  • Epidemiology Topics for Signature Assignment The topic of diabetic retinopathy is relevant to my future career as I will seek to encourage every patient with diabetes to have an eye examination regularly.
  • Cardiovascular Issues in Hispanic Diabetes Patient This paper discusses the disease processes and produces a treatment plan for a 59-year-old Hispanic male with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Chronic Renal Failure: Prevention and Treatment in Diabetic Patients Chronic renal failure (CRF), which is the final stage of chronic kidney disease, is a condition when kidneys fail to perform their function and respond to the needs of a body.
  • Benefits of the Ketogenic Diet in Diabetic Patients The goal of this study is to verify the benefits of ketogenic diets in diabetic patients. The objectives included searching the literature for recent articles on the use of ketogenic diets in diabetes.
  • The Issue of Diabetes in Native Americans The paper contributes to efforts for improving the quality of care for Native American patients diagnosed with or at risk for diabetes.
  • Diabetes Documentation for Non-Medical Individuals This essay looks at how diabetes has been documented for non-medical individuals over the decades. Examples will be drawn from the poem Diabetes by James Dickey.
  • Effectiveness of Pragmatic Lifestyle Interventions for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes The studies show that even small changes in lifestyle and physical activity may significantly facilitate the condition of a patient with diabetes.
  • The Management of Diabetes in Children The management of diabetes in children needs comprehensive understanding owing to the age of patients and the complexity that comes with the disease.
  • Diabetes Prevention: Plan of Care As a lifestyle and dietary choices are central to diabetes prevention and management, it is critical to develop a plan of care for the use in health delivery to this population.
  • Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is one of the primary health concerns of the American healthcare system. The prevalence of the disorder is likely to remain unchanged or even increase due to population aging.
  • Geriatric Diabetes Management: Evidence-Based Project The presence of diabetes may provoke several complications such as an increase in the levels of blood sugar and blood glucose.
  • Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes The patient involved in the assessment should pay attention to his diet as a modifiable risk factor associated with type 2 diabetes.
  • Patient Education: Prepare to Live with Diabetes Living with diabetes is not an easy task. Unfortunately, no cure can be offered to patients in order to eliminate it completely.
  • Diabetes Signs, Screening and Treatment Diabetes is among the most common endocrine disorders among adults. The condition can be successfully managed using a combination of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches.
  • Diabetes Monitor Health Application: Patient Guide The Diabetes Monitor health application records, analyzes, and controls the development of diabetes, reminds of blood glucose tests and the prescribed medicine.
  • Nutritional Recommendations for Pediatric Diabetes The issue of children who have diabetes has gained a lot of attention in recent years due to the overwhelming number of consequences that influence their health on a daily basis.
  • Diabetes: Causes and Effects Diabetes is the ailment in which there is lack of the production and improper utilization of insulin in the body.
  • Diabetic Patient's Education on Insulin Injections The nursing case study is about Juan Duran, a Mexican-American who was prescribed to take insulin injections but was not instructed in how to perform them.
  • Diabetes in Adolescents: Research Critique The following topics are discussed in this essay: protection of human participants, data collection, data management and analysis, findings, and interpretation of findings.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Recent Research and Clinical Findings Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, so it can not be completely treated; only properly managed, this is why the reliable method of diagnostics is a great tool for fighting it.
  • The Negative Impact of Diabetes on Pregnancy This paper aims to raise awareness about the negative impact of diabetes on pregnancy and how this impact can be mitigated.
  • Poor Diabetes Control in Miami-Dade County, Florida Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects a patient’s blood sugar level and leads to a range of negative consequences.
  • The Family-Based Education for Adult Patients with T2DM: Positive Effects The purpose of this review is to determine whether family-based education improves glycemic control and health-related quality of life in adult patients with T2DM.
  • “Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Diabetes” by Chlebowy In the article, Chlebowy et al. examined one’s ability to manage diabetes type 2 and possible complications in the form of depression, anxiety, and stress.
  • The Treatment of Foot Ulcers in Diabetic Patients: Case Study The treatment of foot ulcers in diabetic patients is characterized by several restrictions and precautionary measures.
  • Evidence-Based Practice Interventions for Diabetes: CLC Assignment in Nursing Looking for evidence-based practice interventions for diabetes? ➤ Read our project paper example to ✅ learn about mobile health interventions in diabetes care.
  • Diabetes and Hypertension Avoiding Recommendations It is vital to develop a system of health recommendations that would promote the prevention of diabetes in Hispanic Americans.
  • About Diabetes Treatment The article is a summary of the literature on the most recent findings for effective type 2 diabetes management strategies with a focus on patient engagement.
  • Prevalence of Diabetes in Minority Populations This paper examines how nurse specialists could cope with the progression of diabetes in minority populations, such as Hispanics.
  • COPD, Heart Failure, Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus The paper aims to address health problems associated with high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. It involves analyzing patients’ lifestyles.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Aged Indigenous Australians The prevalence of diabetes 2 is common amongst the indigenous Australian people. The trend can be attributed to the genetic susceptibility amongst these people.
  • Resistin and Its Potential Effects on Insulin Resistance The paper explores the physiological effects of the gut hormone Resistin. In the study conducted at The Penn Diabetes Center, resistin was first discovered as a 12 kDa polypeptide.
  • The Global Prevalence of Diabetes in the World This document explores diabetes’ occurrence, causes, and the people more affected around the world, discusses symptoms of the disease and corrective measures to deal with it.
  • Management of Foot Ulcers for People with Diabetes Diabetes-related complications are responsible for diabetic foot ulceration and amputation. Cases of lower limb amputation have increased because of diabetes.
  • Patient Illness Trajectory From Diabetes Diagnosis to Hemodialysis in Taiwan The article reviews a study that examined diabetic patients' perceptions of their health and the importance of such information for nurses in the treatment of the disease.
  • Diabetes Prevention Program Review This report aims to review the curriculum for the Diabetes Prevention Program that is offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in preventing diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus: The Key Aspects Diabetes mellitus signifies a chronic, lifetime condition that affects the aptitude of the body to consume the glucose in the blood.
  • Prevention of Medication Errors in Diabetic Patients in Home Health Services The paper seeks to point out how medical errors can be prevented in-home care and hence lead to improved health outcomes in-home care for diabetic patients.
  • Diabetes Risk Factors in Adolescents Diabetes is a common disease among young people in the USA. Dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle are the main risk factors for the development of type II diabetes.
  • How To Protect an Infant Born to a Diabetic Mother This paper evaluates an effective care plan to be given to the baby as a way of mitigating the risks of an infant born of a diabetic mother contracting the disease.
  • Care Plan Development: Treating Diabetes Mellitus This study discusses my role as a nurse in the examination of the health of an individual having diabetes and the provision of medical care.
  • Diabetes: Obesity in Children This paper will discuss obesity in children and the management strategies that may help to reduce cases of overweight among the kids.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Effect on African American Community The paper focuses on an effective learning program that will create awareness about Type 2 diabetes so that members can avoid behavior that may put them at the risk.
  • A Study of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes in the Northwest of England Juvenile type 1 diabetes mellitus is the form of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus that occurs in children and adolescents.
  • Healthy People 2020 Initiative Goals in Miami, FL The three population-based communicable diseases analyzed are HIV/AIDS, STDs, and Diabetes. The community considered is Miami, FL 33155.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Resources Diabetes resource centers provide information that aids in learning the best manner of preventing and managing the illness.
  • Support for Diabetes Using Technology by Hunt et al. Although technology applications can be used in the self-management of diabetes, people need to understand the multifaceted treatment plan.
  • Critical Analysis: Diabetes Risk Factors in Adolescents The paper is divided into various sections, as follows: protection of human participants; data collection; data management and analysis; problem statement; interpretation of findings.
  • Strengthening Adherence in Patients With Diabetes Strengthening adherence in patients with diabetes could be realized via strong social and family support, the involvement of medical personnel, is also of great assistance.
  • Diabetes Type-2 Management and Intervention Plan Better management of type-2 diabetes can help make positive changes in lifestyle and delay or avoid the complications related to this disorder.
  • The Coping Skills, Treatment, and Support Aspects of Diabetes Mellitus Chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus is a big blow to the patient. The paper analysis the coping skills, treatment, and support aspects of diabetes mellitus.
  • The Insulin Pump Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes The purpose of this paper is to discuss Johnson and the group findings in the context of the existing research the insulin pump therapy and its importance for the nursing practice.
  • A Diabetes Diagnosis: Insulin Pump Therapy The current article discusses the long-term results of a diabetes diagnosis known as Insulin Pump Therapy. A large population was used to investigate these outcomes.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Management Strategy This paper seeks to identify the most current diabetes management strategy, critically analyzing its findings in terms of its relevance to diabetes management.
  • Pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension for Elderly Patients With Diabetes This essay discusses the pathophysiology of hypertension in elderly diabetic patients, pharmacological principles in its management, and general nursing care.
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin This paper discusses the structure, synthesis, secretion and metabolism of insulin in association with its major function, which is to regulate blood glucose.
  • Treatment for Diabetes Analysis Although the new discoveries of antidiabetic drugs appear on the market, diabetic patients still suffer from diseases and side effects of these discoveries.
  • Course Project: Lesson Plan for Diabetes Mellitus The main purpose of the lesson plan is to inform and sensitize more people about the issues associated with diabetes mellitus.
  • Diabetes Management and Quality Improvement Initiative The purpose of the diabetes management and quality improvement initiative is to enhance the process of the healthcare provider and the outcome of patients.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type II Diabetes mellitus type II is a chronic metabolic syndrome that affects the body’s sugar metabolism by resisting the stimulation and production of insulin.
  • Diabetes and Healthy People 2020 Care Plan This project has identified the patient vulnerable to the selected health issue of diabetes and assessed one’s health status from the point of view of Healthy People 2020.
  • Diabetes Resources, Control and Prevention The following project will list three helpful resources for this patient and for all those who need help in diabetes prevention and health promotion.
  • Diabetic Diet Management: Patient Education Plan A nurse supporting individuals with diabetes should use education plans to produce the best goals, focus on a wide range of issues such as disease management, exercise, and diet.
  • Diabetes Prevention Lesson and Teaching Plan In this paper, the teaching plan will be elaborated to help the community people affected by the diabetes problem improve their health status.
  • Diabetes Impact on Direct Care Plan Development A diabetes direct care plan for the people in the community should be based on the data obtained during the screening and evaluation procedures.
  • Aspirin Usage for Women with Diabetes For women with diabetes, does the use of low-dose aspirin daily reduce the risk of cardiovascular events within several years in comparison with no usage of low-dose aspirin?
  • Type 2 Diabetes: The Ways to Prevent or Delay It This paper aims to describe several ways to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes: adequate diet, physical activity, etc.
  • Diabetes and Positive Influence of Physical Exercise Continuous physical exercise helps diabetic patients to reduce their daily need for insulin, attain a healthy body mass index, and lower cardiovascular complications.
  • Researching Intervention on Diabetes It is emotionally challenging for adolescents to understand why diabetes is a chronic disease that will accompany them throughout their lives
  • Indicators in Black Diabetes Mellitus Type II Patients This paper aims to analyze the importance of the variables and their topicality to the chosen PICOT question about black diabetes mellitus type II patients.
  • The BlueStar Diabetes Mobile Health Application The mobile health application "BlueStar Diabetes" is advised for the client to help improve his quality of life and prevent any complications.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Age-Related Changes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder commonly caused by blood sugar imbalance in the body when insulin hormone becomes defective, and mainly results from lifestyle implications.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease The paper demonstrates that type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (CAD) can cause the symptoms of feeling extremely tired and gaining weight.
  • Diabetes and Healthy People 2020 The paper will address diabetes from the point of view of Healthy People 2020 and discuss diabetes' impact on individual health and the overall health of the nation.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: Health Promotion Program The prevention of type 2 diabetes can be accomplished by ensuring that patients exercise, maintain a proper diet, get an annual physical, and participate in lifestyle seminars.
  • Diabetes Intervention as Evidence-Based Practice Project The development of artificial pancreas technology provides an opportunity for more effective and safe treatment that is ongoing 24/7.
  • Rapid Weight Loss in Elderly Diabetic Patient The paper discusses about measures for diagnostic causes problem of weight loss in diabetic and importance of right diagnostics.
  • Quality Healthcare: Measuring NP Performance Out of six domains of care proposed by the National Committee for Quality Assurance, the paper focuses on such domains as the effectiveness of care.
  • Diabetes in Children: Policies and Programs Diabetes is a chronic disease, the onset of which is caused due to the lack of insulin produced by the pancreas or organism's inability to use this insulin.
  • Reducing Hospital Readmissions Among Diabetes Patients This paper proposes to use several strategies that may not only improve outcomes in patients with diabetes but also reduce related workload and cost burden on the industry.
  • Constant Glucose Monitoring in Diabetic Patients The paper discusses the importance of Constant Glucose Monitoring in diabetic patients. It includes that GCM improves treatment satisfaction.
  • Health Belief Model in Diabetes Care It is important to note that diabetes is a chronic condition where an individual’s body experiences issues with blood sugar regulations.
  • The Type 2 Diabetes Patient Education Knowledge of type 2 diabetes and mortality from this disease will help to raise awareness of patients in this matter.
  • A Diabetes Patient's Challenging Experiences The current paper provides one with a better understanding of individuals’ experiences with chronic illnesses and associated vulnerabilities.
  • Reducing Hospital Readmissions With Diabetes The current paper will review the ways of reducing frequent hospital readmissions among the population of patients with diabetes.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Plan for Teenager The patient is a female teenager who goes to high school and frequently attends soccer practice, as she is the goalie of the soccer team.
  • Factors That Affect the Increase of Type 2 Diabetes Worldwide
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Contemporary Naturopathic Medicine
  • Glucose Tolerance Tests Accuracy in Diagnosing Diabetes
  • Metformin and Biliary Tract Cancer in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes Among Ethnic Minorities and the Aging Population
  • Diabetes, Ethnicity, and Genetics
  • Type Two Diabetes Mellitus as a Disease That Discriminates Against Lifes
  • Medications Adherence and Associated Factors Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Gaza Strip, Palestine
  • Obesity and Diabetes: Implications for Brain-Immunometabolism
  • Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Obesity and Diabetes: Energy Regulation by Free Fatty Acid Receptors
  • Living With Diabetes: The Benefits of a High Fat and Low Carbohydrate Diet
  • Sex and Gender Aspects in Diabetes
  • Childhood Obesity and Its Correlation With Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Erectile Dysfunctions
  • Vegetarian and Vegan Diets on Type 2 Diabetes Management
  • Genetic Origins and Interventions of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
  • Understanding Autoimmune Diabetes Through the Prism of the Tri-Molecular Complex
  • Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: A Critical Assessment of the Shared Pathological Traits
  • Novel Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetes
  • Family-based Diabetes Intervention for Hispanic Adults and Their Family Members
  • Type Two Diabetes Mellitus Among African Americans
  • Diabetes Alters Activation and Repression of Pro- And Anti-inflammatory Signaling Pathways in the Vasculature
  • Diabetes: All About the Disease, Its Causes, Effects, Treatments, and Possible Future Treatments
  • Diabetes Health and Prevention for Asian Americans
  • Traditional and Alternative Medicine for Type Two Diabetes
  • Camel Milk and Its Effects on People With Type One Diabetes
  • Diabetes, Pancreatic Cancer, and Metformin Therapy
  • Platelet Measurements and Type 2 Diabetes: Investigations in Two Population-based Cohorts
  • Gestational Diabetes and How To Treat the Disease During Pregnancy
  • Connecting Alzheimer’s Disease With Diabetes Mellitus Through Amyloidogenic Evolvability
  • Phosphatidylserine-liposomes Promote Tolerogenic Features on Dendritic Cells in Human Type 1 Diabetes by Apoptotic Mimicry
  • Factors That Affect the Health Condition of Diabetes
  • Native Americans and the Effects of Diabetes
  • Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments
  • Asian Indians With Prediabetes Have Similar Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function to Those With Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes and Complementary and Alternative Therapies
  • Diabetes Disease and Its Effect on the Digestive System
  • Type One Diabetes and the Consequences
  • What Are the Screening Tools for Type 1 Diabetes?
  • How Does Insulin Help Diabetes Be Controlled?
  • What Is the Prophylaxis To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How Does Diabetes Not Cause Depression?
  • Why Are Approximately 1,800 New Cases of Diabetes Diagnosed in America Every Day?
  • Does Alcohol Decrease the Risk of Diabetes?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Excess Iron and Type 2 Diabetes?
  • Does Overeating Cause Diabetes, Cavities, Acne, Hyperactivity and Make You Fat?
  • How Fat and Obesity Cause Diabetes?
  • What Is Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus?
  • What Are the Effects of Diabetes on the Peripheral Blood Vessels and the Consequences?
  • How Diabetes Insipidus Takes Place in the Human Body?
  • Cell-Based Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes: Should We Take Hyperglycemia Into Account?
  • What Is the Prevalence and Statistics of Diabetes in Australia?
  • How Diabetes Mellitus Changes Urine Formation?
  • What Is the Public Awareness of Diabetes?
  • Can Diabetes Become Preventable?
  • What Are the Main Causes and Treatments of Diabetes?
  • Can Exercising and Dieting Prevent People From Type 2 Diabetes?
  • What Is Pharmacotherapy and How Does It Help in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes?
  • Can Coffee Reduce the Risk of Diabetes?
  • What Factors Are Involved in the Increasing Prevalence of Type II Diabetes in Adolescents Living in Sub-saharan Africa?
  • Is It Possible to Manage Diabetes Through Diet and Weight Control?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Depression and Diabetes?
  • How Does the Treatment With Insulin Affect Type 2 Diabetes?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Genetic Predisposition, Obesity, and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How to Reduce the Likelihood of Rehospitalization of Patients With Diabetes?
  • Why Diabetes Mellitus and How It Affects the United States?
  • Does Valproic Acid Have Potential in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Genetics and Diabetes?

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  • v.6(6); 2015 Jun 25

Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century

Correspondence to: Akram T Kharroubi, PhD, Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Endocrinology, Dean of Faculty of Health Professions, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Professions, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 51000, Abed Elhamaid Shoman Street, Beit Hanina-Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91000, Palestine. [email protected]

Telephone: +972-2-2791243 Fax: +972-2-2791243

The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development.

Core tip: Diabetes mellitus is rising to an alarming epidemic level. Early diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes is essential using recommended hemoglobin A1c criteria for different types except for gestational diabetes. Screening for diabetes especially in underdeveloped countries is essential to reduce late diagnosis. Diabetes development involves the interaction between genetic and non-genetic factors. Biomedical research continues to provide new insights in our understanding of the mechanism of diabetes development that is reviewed here. Recent studies may provide tools for the use of several genes as targets for risk assessment, therapeutic strategies and prediction of complications.


Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Metabolic abnormalities in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins result from the importance of insulin as an anabolic hormone. Low levels of insulin to achieve adequate response and/or insulin resistance of target tissues, mainly skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, and to a lesser extent, liver, at the level of insulin receptors, signal transduction system, and/or effector enzymes or genes are responsible for these metabolic abnormalities. The severity of symptoms is due to the type and duration of diabetes. Some of the diabetes patients are asymptomatic especially those with type 2 diabetes during the early years of the disease, others with marked hyperglycemia and especially in children with absolute insulin deficiency may suffer from polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, and blurred vision. Uncontrolled diabetes may lead to stupor, coma and if not treated death, due to ketoacidosis or rare from nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome[ 1 - 3 ].


Although classification of diabetes is important and has implications for the treatment strategies, this is not an easy task and many patients do not easily fit into a single class especially younger adults[ 1 , 4 - 6 ] and 10% of those initially classified may require revision[ 7 ]. The classical classification of diabetes as proposed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in 1997 as type 1, type 2, other types, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still the most accepted classification and adopted by ADA[ 1 ]. Wilkin[ 8 ] proposed the accelerator hypothesis that argues “type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same disorder of insulin resistance set against different genetic backgrounds”[ 9 ]. The difference between the two types relies on the tempo, the faster tempo reflecting the more susceptible genotype and earlier presentation in which obesity, and therefore, insulin resistance, is the center of the hypothesis. Other predictors of type 1 diabetes include increased height growth velocity[ 10 , 11 ] and impaired glucose sensitivity of β cells[ 12 ]. The implications of increased free radicals, oxidative stress, and many metabolic stressors in the development, pathogenesis and complications of diabetes mellitus[ 13 - 18 ] are very strong and well documented despite the inconsistency of the clinical trials using antioxidants in the treatment regimens of diabetes[ 19 - 21 ]. The female hormone 17-β estradiol acting through the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) is essential for the development and preservation of pancreatic β cell function since it was clearly demonstrated that induced oxidative stress leads to β-cell destruction in ER-α knockout mouse. The ER-α receptor activity protects pancreatic islets against glucolipotoxicity and therefore prevents β-cell dysfunction[ 22 ].


Autoimmune type 1 diabetes.

This type of diabetes constitutes 5%-10% of subjects diagnosed with diabetes[ 23 ] and is due to destruction of β cells of the pancreas[ 24 , 25 ]. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 80%-90% of diabetes in children and adolescents[ 2 , 26 ]. According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of youth (0-14 years) diagnosed with type 1 diabetes worldwide in 2013 was 497100 (Table ​ (Table1) 1 ) and the number of newly diagnosed cases per year was 78900[ 27 ]. These figures do not represent the total number of type 1 diabetes patients because of the high prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adolescence and adults above 14 years of age. One reported estimate of type 1 diabetes in the United States in 2010 was 3 million[ 28 , 29 ]. The number of youth in the United States younger than 20 years with type 1 diabetes was estimated to be 166984 in the year 2009[ 30 ]. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in the world is not known but in the United States in youth younger than 20 years was 1.93 per 1000 in 2009 (0.35-2.55 in different ethnic groups) with 2.6%-2.7% relative annual increase[ 26 , 31 ]. Type 1 diabetes is mainly due to an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β cells through T-cell mediated inflammatory response (insulitis) as well as a humoral (B cell) response[ 25 ]. The presence of autoantibodies against the pancreatic islet cells is the hallmark of type 1 diabetes, even though the role of these antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease is not clear. These autoantibodies include islet cell autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, GAD65), protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA2 and IA2β) and zinc transporter protein (ZnT8A)[ 32 ]. These pancreatic autoantibodies are characteristics of type 1 diabetes and could be detected in the serum of these patients months or years before the onset of the disease[ 33 ]. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes has strong HLA associations, with linkage to DR and DQ genes. HLA-DR/DQ alleles can be either predisposing or protective[ 1 ]. This autoimmune type 1 diabetes is characterized by the absence of insulin secretion and is more dominant in children and adolescents.

Number of subjects with type 1 diabetes in children (0-14 years), with diabetes in adults (20-79 years) and with hyperglycemia (type 2 or gestational diabetes) in pregnancy (20-49 years)

Middle East and North Africa64.010.734.610.9%67.911.3%3.417.5%
North America and Caribbean108.616.736.89.6%50.49.9%0.910.4%
South and Central America45.67.324.18.2%38.58.2%0.911.4%
South East Asia77.912.572.18.7%123.09.4%6.325.0%
Western Pacific32.55.3138.28.1%201.88.4%3.711.9%

Data extracted from International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 6th ed, 2013.

In addition to the importance of genetic predisposition in type 1 diabetes, several environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of the disease[ 9 , 33 ]. Viral factors include congenital rubella[ 34 , 35 ], viral infection with enterovirus, rotavirus, herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, endogenous retrovirus[ 36 , 37 ] and Ljungan virus. Other factors include low vitamin D levels[ 38 ], prenatal exposure to pollutants, improved hygiene and living conditions decreased childhood infections in countries with high socioeconomic status leading to increased autoimmune diseases (hygiene hypothesis), early infant nutrition such as using cow’s milk formula instead of breast feeding[ 39 ] in addition to insulin resistance in early childhood due to obesity or increased height growth velocity. The role of environmental factors remains controversial[ 40 ]. Recent evidence supported the causative effect of viral infections in diabetes[ 41 - 43 ].

Type 1 diabetes often develops suddenly and can produce symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, enuresis, lack of energy, extreme tiredness, polyphagia, sudden weight loss, slow-healing wounds, recurrent infections and blurred vision[ 27 ] with severe dehydration and diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents. The symptoms are more severe in children compared to adults. These autoimmune type 1 diabetes patients are also prone to other autoimmune disorders such as Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Addison’s disease, vitiligo, celiac sprue, autoimmune hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, and pernicious anemia[ 1 ]. The complete dependence on insulin of type 1 diabetes patients may be interrupted by a honeymoon phase which lasts weeks to months or in some cases 2-3 years. In some children, the requirement for insulin therapy may drop to a point where insulin therapy could be withdrawn temporarily without detectable hyperglycemia[ 44 ].

Idiopathic type 1 diabetes

A rare form of type 1 diabetes of unknown origin (idiopathic), less severe than autoimmune type 1 diabetes and is not due to autoimmunity has been reported. Most patients with this type are of African or Asian descent and suffer from varying degrees of insulin deficiency and episodic ketoacidosis[ 45 ].

Fulminant type 1 diabetes

This is a distinct form of type 1 diabetes, first described in the year 2000, and has some common features with idiopathic type 1 diabetes being non-immune mediated[ 46 , 47 ]. It is characterized by ketoacidosis soon after the onset of hyperglycemia, high glucose levels (≥ 288 mg/dL) with undetectable levels of serum C-peptide, an indicator of endogenous insulin secretion[ 48 ]. It has been described mainly in East Asian countries and accounted for approximately 20% of acute-onset type 1 diabetes patients in Japan (5000-7000 cases) with an extremely rapid and almost complete beta-cell destruction resulting in nearly no residual insulin secretion[ 48 , 49 ]. Both genetic and environmental factors, especially viral infection, have been implicated in the disease. Anti-viral immune response may trigger the destruction of pancreatic beta cells through the accelerated immune reaction with no detectable autoantibodies against pancreatic beta cells[ 48 , 50 ]. Association of fulminant type 1 diabetes with pregnancy has also been reported[ 51 ].


The global prevalence of diabetes in adults (20-79 years old) according to a report published in 2013 by the IDF was 8.3% (382 million people), with 14 million more men than women (198 million men vs 184 million women), the majority between the ages 40 and 59 years and the number is expected to rise beyond 592 million by 2035 with a 10.1% global prevalence. With 175 million cases still undiagnosed, the number of people currently suffering from diabetes exceeds half a billion. An additional 21 million women are diagnosed with hyperglycemia during pregnancy. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes (10.9%), however, Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes (138.2 millions) and has also countries with the highest prevalence (Figure ​ (Figure1 1 )[ 27 ]. Low- and middle-income countries encompass 80% of the cases, “where the epidemic is gathering pace at alarming rates”[ 27 ]. Despite the fact that adult diabetes patients are mainly type 2 patients, it is not clear whether the reported 382 million adults diagnosed with diabetes also include type 1 diabetes patients.

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Comparative prevalence of diabetes in adults (20-79 years) in countries with high prevalence (≥ 10%). Data extracted from International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 6th ed, 2013.

More than 90%-95% of diabetes patients belong to this type and most of these patients are adults. The number of youth (less than 20 years) with type 2 diabetes in the United States in the year 2009 was 0.46 in 1000 and accounted for approximately 20% of type 2 diabetes in youth[ 26 ]. The increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth is mainly due to the change in the lifestyle of the children in terms of more sedentary life and less healthy food. Obesity is the major reason behind insulin resistance which is mainly responsible for type 2 diabetes[ 52 - 54 ]. The ADA recommends screening of overweight children and adolescence to detect type 2 diabetes[ 55 , 56 ]. The prevalence of obesity in children in on the rise[ 6 ] which is probably the main reason for the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the young (30.3% overall increase in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescence between 2001 and 2009)[ 26 ].

Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients increases the demand for insulin in insulin-target tissues. In addition to insulin resistance, the increased demand for insulin could not be met by the pancreatic β cells due to defects in the function of these cells[ 18 ]. On the contrary, insulin secretion decreases with the increased demand for insulin by time due to the gradual destruction of β cells[ 57 ] that could transform some of type 2 diabetes patients from being independent to become dependent on insulin. Most type 2 diabetes patients are not dependent on insulin where insulin secretion continues and insulin depletion rarely occurs. Dependence on insulin is one of the major differences from type 1 diabetes. Other differences include the absence of ketoacidosis in most patients of type 2 diabetes and autoimmune destruction of β cells does not occur. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have genetic predisposition, however, it is stronger in type 2 but the genes are more characterized in type 1 (the TCF7L2 gene is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes)[ 58 ]. Due to the mild symptoms of type 2 diabetes in the beginning, its diagnosis is usually delayed for years especially in countries where regular checkup without symptoms is not part of the culture. This delay in diagnosis could increase the incidence of long-term complications in type 2 diabetes patients since hyperglycemia is not treated during this undiagnosed period.

In addition to diabetes, insulin resistance has many manifestations that include obesity, nephropathy, essential hypertension, dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, decreased LDL particle diameter, enhanced postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein accumulation), ovarian hyperandrogenism and premature adrenarche, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and systemic inflammation[ 6 , 54 ]. The presence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescence who are not obese[ 59 - 61 ], the occasional severe dehydration and the presence of ketoacidosis in some pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes[ 55 ] had led to the misclassification of type 2 to type 1 diabetes.

Some patients with many features of type 2 diabetes have some type 1 characteristics including the presence of islet cell autoantibodies or autoantibodies to GAD65 are classified as a distinct type of diabetes called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)[ 62 ]. People diagnosed with LADA do not require insulin treatment. In a recent study, Hawa et al[ 63 ] reported 7.1% of European patients with type 2 diabetes with a mean age of 62 years, tested positive for GAD autoantibodies and the prevalence of LADA was higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes at a younger age. This classification of LADA as a distinct type of diabetes is still controversial[ 6 , 64 - 66 ].

Insulin resistance and signaling

Defects in the insulin-dependent substrate proteins IRS-1 and IRS-2 mediated signaling pathway are implicated in the development of metabolic disorders, mainly diabetes. This pathway mediates the cellular response to insulin and involves a large array of insulin-stimulated protein kinases including the serine/threonine kinase AKT and protein kinase C (PKC) that phosphorylate a large number of Ser/Thr residues in the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins involved in the metabolic response to insulin[ 67 ]. In addition, other non-insulin dependent kinases including the AMP-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 that are activated under various conditions can phosphorylate the two insulin responsive substrates[ 67 - 71 ]. Disruption in the AKT and PKC kinases is central to the development of diabetes[ 72 ] and is associated with all major features of the disease including hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance[ 73 ]. Replacing the wild type IRS-1 with a mutant version of the protein having alanine instead of tyrosine in three locations using genetic knock-in approach provided evidence to the central role of IRS-1 phosphorylation in the development of insulin resistance[ 74 ]. Using a similar approach to generate IRS-1 mutant with a single mutation involving a specific tyrosine residue, confirmed the role of IRS-1 phosphorylation in the development of insulin resistance pathogenesis[ 75 ]. The large cumulative evidence indicates a complex array of factors including environmental factors[ 76 ] and a wide range of cellular disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism in various tissues[ 77 ] contribute to the development of insulin resistance. This condition generates complex cellular metabolic changes in a variety of tissues, mainly liver and muscles, that include the inability of the liver to transport and dispose glucose, control glucose production via gluconeogenesis, impaired storage of glucose as glycogen, de novo lipogenesis and hypertriglyceridemia[ 77 ]. Among the factors implicated in the development of insulin resistance, obesity is the most predominant risk factor leading to insulin insensitivity and diabetes which involves several mechanisms that participate in the pathogenesis of the disease[ 78 ]. Obesity-induced insulin resistance is directly linked to increased nutrient flux and energy accumulation in tissues that directly affect cell responsiveness to insulin[ 77 ]. However, it seems that other insulin-independent mechanisms are involved in the overall metabolic disturbances of glucose homeostasis and diabetes including activities in extra-hepatic tissues in addition to the central role of liver.


Monogenic diabetes.

Characterization of the genetic etiology of diabetes enables more appropriate treatment, better prognosis, and counseling[ 79 ]. Monogenic diabetes is due to a genetic defect in single genes in pancreatic β cells which results in disruption of β cell function or a reduction in the number of β cells. Conventionally, monogenic diabetes is classified according to the age of onset as neonatal diabetes before the age of six months or Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) before the age of 25 years. However, certain familial defects are manifested in neonatal diabetes, MODY or adult onset diabetes[ 2 , 9 , 80 ]. Others believe that classification of diabetes as MODY and neonatal diabetes is obsolete and monogenic diabetes is currently used relating specific genetic etiologies with their specific treatment implications[ 79 ]. Beta cell differentiation depends on the expression of the homeodomain transcription factor PDX1 where mutation in the gene results in early onset diabetes (MODY) and its expression decreases before the onset of diabetes[ 81 ]. The angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) may represent a potential “betatrophin” that acts to promote the proliferation of beta cells, however, studies using mice lacking the ANGPTL8 active gene or overexpressed protein indicated that it did not seem to play a role in beta cells proliferation[ 82 ].

Mitochondrial diabetes is due to a point mutation in the mitochondrial DNA associated with deafness and maternal transmission of the mutant DNA can result in maternally-inherited diabetes[ 1 , 83 ].

Mutations that result in mutant insulin or the inability to convert proinsulin to insulin result in glucose intolerance in some of these cases. Genetic defects in the insulin receptor or in the signal transduction pathway of insulin have been demonstrated to result in hyperinsulinemia and modest hyperglycemia to severe diabetes[ 1 ].

Disease of the exocrine pancreas

Damage of the β cells of the pancreas due to diffused injury of the pancreas can cause diabetes. This damage could be due to pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatitis, infection, pancreatectomy, and trauma[ 1 ]. Atrophy of the exocrine pancreas leads to progressive loss of the β cells[ 84 ]. Accumulation of fat in the pancreas or pancreatic steatosis could lead to diabetes due to decreased insulin secretion but may require a long time before the damage to β cells occurs[ 85 ]. In most cases, extensive damage of the pancreas is required before diabetes occurs and the exocrine function of the pancreas is decreased in these patients[ 86 ]. Cirrhosis in cystic fibrosis may contribute to insulin resistance and diabetes[ 2 ].

Hormones and drugs

Diabetes has been found in patients with endocrine diseases that secrete excess hormones like growth hormone, glucocorticoids, glucagon and epinephrine in certain endocrinopathies like acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, glucagonoma, and pheochromocytoma, respectively[ 1 ]. Some of these hormones are used as drugs such as glucocorticoids to suppress the immune system and in chemotherapy and growth hormone to treat children with stunted growth.

Genetic syndromes

Diabetes has been detected in patients with various genetic syndromes such as Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome and Wolfram syndrome[ 1 ].


Individuals with prediabetes do not meet the criteria of having diabetes but are at high risk to develop type 2 diabetes in the future. According to the ADA Expert Committee, individuals are defined to have prediabetes if they have either impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) levels between 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) or impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) with 2-h plasma glucose levels in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) of 140-199 mg/dL (7.8-11.0 mmol/L). The World Health Organization (WHO) still adopts the range for IFG from 110-125 mg/dL (6.1-6.9 mmol/L). Prediabetes has been shown to correlate with increased cardiovascular mortality[ 87 , 88 ] and cancer[ 89 ]. The definition of prediabetes with the indicated cut off values is misleading since lower levels of glucose in the normal range are still correlated with cardiovascular disease in a continuous glycemic risk perspective[ 90 ]. In accordance with the recommendation of the ADA in 2009 to use hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to diagnose diabetes, ADA also recommended the use of an HbA1c (5.7%-6.4%) to diagnose prediabetes[ 91 ]. The number of people with IGT according to IDF was 316 million in 2013 (global prevalence 6.9% in adults) and is expected to rise to 471 million in 2030[ 27 ]. According to a report in 2014 by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 86 million Americans (1 out of 3) have prediabetes[ 92 ]. Four of the top ten countries with the highest prevalence of prediabetes are in the Middle East Arab States of the Gulf (Kuwait, Qatar, UAE and Bahrin with prevalence of 17.9%, 17.1%, 16.6% and 16.3%, respectively)[ 27 ]. The number of people diagnosed with prediabetes is different according to the method and criteria used to diagnose prediabetes. The number of people with prediabetes defined by IFG 100-125 mg/dL is 4-5 folds higher than those diagnosed using the WHO criteria of 110-125 mg/dL[ 93 ]. Diabetes and prediabetes diagnosed using an HbA1c criteria give different estimates compared to methods using FPG or OGTT. Higher percentages of prediabetes were diagnosed using HbA1c compared to FPG[ 94 - 96 ]. Prediabetes is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity (especially abdominal or visceral obesity), dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension[ 97 ]. Not all individuals with prediabetes develop diabetes in the future, exercise with a reduction of weight 5%-10% reduces the risk of developing diabetes considerably (40%-70%)[ 98 ]. Individuals with an HbA1c of 6.0%-6.5% have twice the risk of developing diabetes (25%-50%) in five years compared to those with an HbA1c of 5.5%-6.0%[ 99 ].


Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed using either the estimation of plasma glucose (FPG or OGTT) or HbA1c. Estimation of the cut off values for glucose and HbA1c is based on the association of FPG or HbA1c with retinopathy. Fasting plasma glucose of ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L), plasma glucose after 2-h OGTT ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or a random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) along with symptoms of hyperglycemia is diagnostic of diabetes mellitus. In addition to monitor the treatment of diabetes, HbA1c has been recommended to diagnose diabetes by the International Expert Committee in 2009[ 100 ] and endorsed by ADA[ 101 ], the Endocrine Society, the WHO[ 102 ] and many scientists and related organizations all over the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the different tests used to diagnose diabetes have been reviewed by Sacks et al[ 103 ]. The advantages of using HbA1c over FPG to diagnose diabetes include greater convenience and preanalytical stability, lower CV (3.6%) compared to FPG (5.7%) and 2h OGTT (16.6%), stronger correlation with microvascular complications especially retinopathy, and a marker for glycemic control and glycation of proteins which is the direct link between diagnosis of diabetes and its complications[ 104 - 109 ]. It is recommended to repeat the HbA1c test in asymptomatic patients within two weeks to reaffirm a single apparently diagnostic result[ 110 ].

A cut off value for HbA1c of ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) has been endorsed by many countries and different ethnic groups, yet ethnicity seems to affect the cut off values to diagnose diabetes[ 111 , 112 ]. Cut-off values of 5.5% (37 mmol/mol)[ 113 ] and 6.5% (48 mmol/mol)[ 114 ] have been reported in a Japanese study, 6.0% (42 mmol/mol) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) in a Pima Indian study, 6.3% (45 mmol/mol) in an Egyptian study as reported by Davidson[ 105 ]; and three cut-off values for Chinese[ 112 ]. The Australians recommended the use of two cut-off values: ≤ 5.5% to “rule-out” and ≥ 7.0% to “rule-in” diabetes[ 115 ]. Variations in the prevalence of diabetes[ 94 , 116 - 119 ] and prediabetes[ 120 ] due to ethnicity have been documented. Most studies diagnosed less subjects with diabetes using HbA1c compared to FPG or OGTT[ 121 - 123 ]. Yet, other studies reported more subjects diagnosed with diabetes using HbA1c[ 96 , 124 - 126 ].


Hyperglycemia in pregnancy whether in the form of type 2 diabetes diagnosed before or during pregnancy or in the form gestational diabetes has an increased risk of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcome. Mothers with gestational diabetes and babies born to such mothers have increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is responsible for the increased risk for macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4.5 kg), large for gestational age births, preeclampsia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery due to large babies[ 127 ]. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include obesity, personal history of gestational diabetes, family history of diabetes, maternal age, polycystic ovary syndrome, sedentary life, and exposure to toxic factors[ 3 ].

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes before or during pregnancy is based on criteria mentioned before. Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or 2-h plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after a 75 g oral glucose load. However, gestational diabetes has been diagnosed at 24-28 wk of gestation in women not previously diagnosed with diabetes using two approaches: the first approach is based on the “one-step” International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) consensus[ 128 ] and recently adopted by WHO[ 129 ]. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed using this method by FPG ≥ 92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L), 1-h plasma glucose after a 75 g glucose load ≥ 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) or 2-h plasma glucose after a 75 g glucose load ≥ 153 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L). This criteria is derived from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study[ 127 ] even though the HAPO study showed a continuous relationship between hyperglycemia and adverse short-term pregnancy outcome with no threshold reported[ 130 ]. The second approach is used in the United States and is based on the “two-step” NIH consensus[ 131 ]. In the first step 1-h plasma glucose after a 50 g glucose load under nonfasting state ≥ 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is followed by a second step under fasting conditions after a 100 g glucose load for those who screened abnormal in the first step. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made when at least two of the four plasma glucose levels are met. The four plasma glucose levels according to Carpenter/Coustan criteria are: FPG ≥ 95 mg/dL (5.3 mmol/L); 1-h ≥ 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L); 2-h ≥ 155 mg/dL (8.6 mmol/L); and 3-h ≥ 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L)[ 1 ].

The use IADPSC criteria in comparison with the Carpenter/Coustan criteria was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in GDM prevalence as well as significant improvements in pregnancy outcomes, and was cost-effective[ 132 ]. In another retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes, Ethridge et al[ 133 ] have shown that newborns of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes by IADPSG approach have greater measures of fetal overgrowth compared with Carpenter-Coustan “two-step” approach neonates. A strategy of using fasting plasma glucose as a screening test and to determine the need for OGTT is valid[ 134 , 135 ]. According to Sacks[ 136 ], correlation of glucose concentrations and the risk of subsequent complications will eventually lead to universal guidelines.

The use of ADA/WHO cut off value of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) to diagnose gestational diabetes is not recommended by the “one step” IADPSC criteria or the “two-step” NIH criteria. Further investigation is required in light of recent reports on HbA1c in combination with OGTT and its usefulness to predict adverse effect of gestational diabetes or obviate the use OGTT in all women with gestational diabetes[ 137 - 141 ].


Diabetes is a complex disease that involves a wide range of genetic and environmental factors. Over the past several years, many studies have focused on the elucidation of the wide spectrum of genes that played a role in the molecular mechanism of diabetes development[ 142 - 144 ]. However, despite the vast flow of genetic information including the identification of many gene mutations and a large array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in many genes involved in the metabolic pathways that affect blood glucose levels, the exact genetic mechanism of diabetes remains elusive[ 145 , 146 ]. Evidently, a major complication is the fact that a single gene mutation or polymorphism will not impose the same effect among different individuals within a population or different populations. This variation is directly or indirectly affected by the overall genetic background at the individual, family or population levels that are potentially further complicated by interaction with highly variable environmental modifier factors[ 147 , 148 ].

Molecular genetics and type 2 diabetes

One of the major focuses of biomedical research is to delineate the collective and broad genetic variants in the human genome that are involved in the development of diabetes. This major effort will potentially provide the necessary information to understand the molecular genetics of the different forms of diabetes including type 1, type 2 and monogenic neonatal diabetes among individuals of all populations and ethnic groups. Despite the fact that linkage and association studies allowed the identification and characterization of many candidate genes that are associated with type 2 diabetes[ 144 , 149 , 150 ], however, not all of these genes showed consistent and reproducible association with the disease[ 151 ]. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in various populations identified 70 loci associated with type 2 diabetes and revealed positive linkage of many mutations and SNPs that influence the expression and physiological impact of the related proteins and risk to develop type 2 diabetes. One study involved several thousand type 2 diabetes patients and control subjects from the United Kingdom allowed the identification of several diabetes putative loci positioned in and around the CDKAL1 , CDKN2A/B , HHEX/IDE and SLC30A8 genes in addition to the contribution of a large number of other genetic variants that are involved in the development of the disease[ 152 ]. Two similar studies from the Finns and Swedish populations and the United States resulted in the identification of similar single nucleotide variants[ 153 ] that are linked to the risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes[ 154 , 155 ]. The study in the United States population included in addition to type 2 diabetes, the association of the identified SNPs with the level of triglycerides in the tested subjects[ 155 ]. These SNPs are located near several candidate genes including IGFBP2 and CDKAL1 and other genes in addition to several other variants that are located near or in genes firmly associated with the risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes. Other GWAS analysis studies were performed in the Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indian populations which are distinct from the European and United States populations in addition to meta-analysis of data from other populations in the region revealed relevant findings among patients with European ancestry[ 156 ]. The results of the combined analysis showed significant association of SNPs in the CDKAL1 , CDKN2A/B , HHEX , KCNQ1 and SLC30A8 genes after adjustment with gender and body mass index. More recently, meta-analysis of GWAS data involving African American type 2 diabetes patients identified similar loci to the previous studies with the addition of two novel loci, HLA-B and INS-IGF[ 157 ]. These results provide strong evidence of common genetic determinants including common specific genes that are linked to diabetes. A small list of specific genetic markers seem strongly associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes including the TCF7L2 [ 158 ] and CAPN10 [ 159 , 160 ] genes which also play a significant role in the risk and pathogenesis of the disease[ 158 , 159 ]. The association of TCF7L2 gene variants with type 2 diabetes and its mechanism of action received special attention by several investigators[ 161 , 162 ]. Over expression of the protein was shown to decrease the sensitivity of beta islet cells to secrete insulin[ 163 , 164 ] and was more precisely involved in the regulation of secretary granule fusion that constitute a late event in insulin secretion pathway[ 165 ]. The role of TCF7L2 in insulin secretion was partially clarified[ 166 ] that involves modifying the effect of incretins on insulin secretion by lowering the sensitivity of beta cells to incretins. Several other genes have been found to be significantly associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes including a specific SNP in a hematopoietically-expressed homeobox ( HHEX ) gene[ 167 ]. The islet zinc transporter protein (SLC30A8)[ 168 ] showed positive correlation with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes where variant mutations in this gene seem protective against the disease which provides a potential tool for therapy[ 169 ]. More recently, a low frequency variant of the HNF1A identified by whole exome sequencing was associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among the Latino population and potentially may serve as a screening tool[ 170 ]. Genetic variants and specific combined polymorphisms in the interleukin and related genes including interlukin-6 ( IL-6 ), tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-10 genes were found to be associated with greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes[ 171 ], in addition to genetic variants in the genes for IL12B , IL23R and IL23A genes[ 172 ]. In a study involving the hormone sensitive lipase responsible for lipolysis in adipose tissues, a deletion null mutation, which resulted in the absence of the protein from adipocytes, was reported to be associated with diabetes[ 173 ]. Nine specific rare variants in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ( PPARG ) gene that resulted in loss of the function of the protein in adipocytes differentiation, were significantly associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes[ 174 ]. In addition, certain SNPs in the alpha 2A adrenergic receptor ( ADRA2A ) gene, involved in the sympathetic nervous system control of insulin secretion and lipolysis, were found to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes[ 175 ]. Link analysis between the melatonin MT2 receptor ( MTNR1B ) gene, a G-protein coupled receptor, identified 14 mutant variants from 40 known variants revealed by exome sequencing, to be positively linked with type 2 diabetes[ 176 ]. The authors suggested that mutations in the MT2 gene could provide a tool with other related genes in modifying therapy for type 2 diabetes patients based on their specific genetic background to formulate personalized therapies which potentially may ensures the optimum response. Interestingly, mutations in the clock[ 177 , 178 ] and Bmal1 [ 179 ] transcription factor genes which are involved in beta cells biological clock affecting growth, survival and synaptic vesicle assembly in these cells, resulted in reduced insulin secretion and diabetes. Evidently, prominent metabolic functions involve the production of specific reactive metabolites, leading to oxidative stress, which affect lipids, proteins and other biological compounds leading to serious damage in various tissues and organs. Mutations and SNPs in the antioxidant genes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, that decrease their activity are implicated in the risk and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes[ 180 ]. The metabolic syndrome was shown to be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in a population that is described as highly endogenous especially in individuals over 45 years of age[ 181 ]. Since consanguinity marriages is high in this population, screening for this syndrome among families could provide an informative marker on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes[ 181 ].

Molecular genetics of type 1 diabetes

Even though type 1 diabetes is basically described as an autoimmune disease that results in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, however, single gene mutations and SNPs have been found to be associated with the susceptibility to this type of diabetes. Initially, two gene mutations were linked to the development of type 1 diabetes including the autoimmune regulator ( AIRE ) gene which affect the immune tolerance to self antigens leading to autoimmunity[ 182 ] and the FOXP3 gene which results in defective regulatory T cells[ 183 ]. In addition, a mutation in the histone deacetylase SIRTI gene predominantly expressed in beta cells involved in the regulation of insulin secretion[ 184 ] and played a role in modulating the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin[ 185 ] was detected in type 1 diabetes patients[ 186 ]. Recently, additional mutations and SNPs in the CTLA-4 +49A/G and HLA-DQB1 and INS gene VNTR alleles were found to be associated with type 1 diabetes, which have the advantage of differentiating between Latent autoimmune type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes[ 187 ]. The HLA-DQB1, in combination with HLA-DR alleles and a polymorphism in PTPN22 gene seem to be associated with the age onset of late type 1 diabetes[ 188 , 189 ]. Two specific polymorphisms in the promoter region of a transmembrane protein (DC-SIGN) gene expressed in macrophages and played an important role of T- cell activation and inflammation were found to be protective against type 1 diabetes[ 190 ]. An innovative non-parametric SNP enrichment tool using summary GWAS DATA allowed the identification of association between several transcription factors and type 1 diabetes and are located in a type 1 diabetes susceptibility region[ 191 ]. Nine SNP variants in several genes associated with type 1 diabetes, not including the major histocompatibility gene region, were identified using extensive GWAS analysis[ 192 ]. Furthermore, several novel SNPs in a region in chromosome 16 located in the CLEC16A gene were shown to be associated with type 1 diabetes and seem to function through the reduced expression of DEX1 in B lymphoblastoid cells[ 193 ]. Since more than 40 regions in the human genome were identified to be associated with the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes[ 194 - 196 ], a weighted risk model was developed utilizing selected genes SNPs could be used for testing infants for these genetic markers that could provide insights in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes development or safe prevention of the disease among young children[ 197 ].

Molecular genetics of monogenic diabetes

A large array of genes were identified to be involved in the development of monogenic diabetes[ 80 ] which represent about 2%-5% of diabetes patients. Monogenic diabetes results primarily from gene defects that lead to a decrease in beta cell number or function. Monogenic diabetes genes were identified using linkage studies or code for proteins that directly affected glucose homeostasis. The majority of genes responsible for monogenetic diabetes code for either transcription factors that participate in the control of nuclear gene expression or proteins that are located on the cell membrane, cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum, proteins involved in insulin synthesis and secretion, exocrine pancreatic proteins and autoimmune diabetes proteins[ 80 ]. The collective function of these proteins is their participation in glucose metabolism at different levels. Evidently, the hierarchy of a specific gene in the overall glucose metabolism pathway determines the onset of diabetes in the patient and whether it is neonataly expressed or have late onset expression (adulthood). Consequently, molecular defects in the structure and function of these genes lead to the disturbance of plasma glucose level, the primary pathological sign of diabetes. The molecular mechanism of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDP) in addition to MODY explains the observed phenotype of monogenetic diabetes that involves loss of function of the expressed mutant protein. The first gene implicated in monogenic diabetes was the glucokinase ( GCK ) gene[ 198 ] which functions as a pancreatic sensor for blood glucose where more than 70 mutations in the gene were identified that affected its activity[ 199 ]. A recent study on GCK gene mutations causing neonatal and childhood diabetes showed that the majority of mutations resulted in the loss of the enzyme function primarily due to protein instability[ 148 , 150 ]. Two hepatocytes nuclear factor genes that code for the HNF4A and HNF1A transcription factors were closely associated with MODY1 and MODY2[ 148 , 149 ]. Definitely, a whole list of other genes involved in monogenic diabetes are either overlooked or included in the genetic determinants of type 1 and type 2 diabetes which will be identified and clarified through more careful future studies.


In addition to the genetic determinants of diabetes, several gene mutations and polymorphisms have been associated with the clinical complications of diabetes. The cumulative data on diabetes patients with a variety of micro- and macrovascular complications support the presence of strong genetic factors involved in the development of various complications[ 200 ]. A list of genes have been reported that are associated with diabetes complications including ACE and AKR1B1 in nephropathy, VEGF and AKRB1 in retinopathy and ADIPOQ and GLUL in cardiovascular diseases[ 200 ]. A study on Chinese patients revealed a single SNP in the promoter region of the smooth muscle actin ( ACTA2 ) gene correlates with the degree of coronary artery stenosis in type 2 diabetes patients[ 201 ]. Furthermore, the alpha kinase 1 gene ( ALPK1 ) identified as a susceptibility gene for chronic kidney disease by GWAS[ 202 ], was demonstrated in type 2 diabetes patients[ 203 ]. Three additional genes have been strongly correlated with this risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) including the vascular endothelial growth receptor, aldose reductase and the receptor for advanced glycation products genes[ 204 ] where specific polymorphisms in these genes seem to increase the risk of DR development in diabetes patients[ 204 ]. A significant differential proteome (involving 56 out of 252 proteins) is evident that characterizes vitreous samples obtained from diabetes patients with the complication in comparison to diabetes patients without the complication and control individuals[ 205 ]. Interestingly, a large portion of these proteins (30 proteins) belong to the kallikrein-kinin, coagulation and complement systems including complement C3, complement factor 1, prothrombin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and antithrombin III that are elevated in diabetic patients with retinopathy[ 205 ]. In addition, 2 single nucleotides polymorphisms in the human related B7-I gene seem to mediate podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy[ 206 ]. Furthermore, increased concentration of the ligand of B7-1 correlates with the progression of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetes patients[ 206 ]. These results indicate that B7-I inhibition may serve as a potential target for diabetes nephropathy prevention and/or treatment. Recently, it was shown that direct correlation is evident between circulating levels of tumor necrosis factors 1 and 2 and increased risk of ESRD in American Indian patients[ 207 ]. The link between diabetes and proper bone development and health is evident. Studies using animal models with major significant reduction in insulin receptor (IR) in osteoprogenitor cells resulted in thin and rod-like weak bones with high risk of fractures[ 208 ]. Similar findings were observed in animal models with bone-specific IR knockdown animals which points to the central role of IR in the proper development of bones[ 208 ]. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissues. Using knockout animal models of specific mitochondrial genes led to significant reduction in key electron transport complexes expression and eventually adipocytes death[ 209 ]. These animals exhibited Insulin resistance in addition to other complications that can potentially lead to cardiovascular disease[ 209 ].

Diabetes mellitus is the epidemic of the century and without effective diagnostic methods at an early stage, diabetes will continue to rise. This review focuses on the types of diabetes and the effective diagnostic methods and criteria to be used for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. Evidently, diabetes is a complex disease with a large pool of genes that are involved in its development. The precise identification of the genetic bases of diabetes potentially provides an essential tool to improve diagnoses, therapy (more towards individualized patient targeted therapy) and better effective genetic counseling. Furthermore, our advanced knowledge of the association between medical genetics and the chronic complications of diabetes, will provide an additional advantage to delay or eradicate these complications that impose an immense pressure on patient’s quality of life and the significantly rising cost of health-care services.

Conflict-of-interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest associated with this manuscript.

Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

Peer-review started: November 23, 2014

First decision: February 7, 2015

Article in press: April 14, 2015

P- Reviewer: Hegardt FG, Surani S, Traub M S- Editor: Gong XM L- Editor: A E- Editor: Wang CH

Home / Essay Samples / Health / Illness / Diabetes

Diabetes Essay Examples

Personalized prevention and management of diabetes.

Diabetes is a rising global burden. This noncommunicable disease is a major global public health priority that is placing untenable demands on individuals, their careers, society, and their health system as a whole. This is informative speech outline diabetes disease in which the topic is...

Diabetes: Medical Definition of Disease

Out of the most common diseases in the world that affects people of all ages is diabetes. Many factors can contribute to different people suffering from diabetes, some of them include the lifestyles people to adapt, genetic inheritance, and ethnicity among other reasons. It is...

The Effects of Vitamin D on Type One Diabetes

Type One Diabetes is a disease that affects people of all ages all across the world. Type One Diabetes is a disease that makes one’s pancreas stop working permanently. I have seen it first hand, my younger brother was diagnosed around 6 years ago on...

The Link Between Vitamin a Deficiency and Diabetes Mellitus

Vitamin A is a complex alcohol and is represented by retinol. Its oxidative products retinaldehyde (also called retinal as well as retinene) is also a biologically active compound. Vitamin A is quite heat stable, but it is destroyed at high temperatures in the presence of...

Diabetes Melitus and Its Prevalence in the Philippines

Diabetes is a disease that has reached epidemic proportions over the years. It is caused by the increase of sugar in the bloodstream (hyperglycaemia) due to the pancreas’ failure to produce enough insulin to level it out. It can be classified into three (3) main...

The Connection Between Type 2 Diabetes and Parasitic Infections

Parasitosis affects a huge number of the world population. Both urogenital and IPIs are linked to increasing morbidity, mortality, and serious outcomes. Intestinal parasitosis greatly affects body metabolism, nutrition absorption and gut ecosystem. A complex relationship exists between parasitosis and T2DM. The mechanisms of both...

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Patient Journey: Case Analysis

Mr Joe Bloggs (The patient will be referred to as ‘Joe Bloggs’ throughout this essay, this is a pseudonym. The clinical area will also not be identified in order to respect confidentiality) is a 56-year-old man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. He presented...

Salt Increases the Risk of Diabetes

Salt isn't just a risk factor for diabetes. It can also weaken the heart and irritate the kidneys, favor high blood pressure and promote obesity. Salt is a kind of flavor enhancer. Without salt, many people would not eat half as much. Today hardly anyone...

Nanobots for Glucose Level Monitoring

Diabetes is one of the deadliest disease of the century. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. Tedious...

A Report on Glucose Sensors Devices

Glucose monitoring is a technology that has been used to monitor diabetes for the last thirty years. There has been evolution of glucose, started with glucose measuring methods that used enzymes to determine the content. Nowadays there is plenty of glucose monitoring devices that give...

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About Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.

Symptoms the need to urinate often, thirst, constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly.

Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and Gestational diabetes.

Family history, race or ethnicity, obesity, lack of exercise,high blood pressure, genetics, air pollution,polycystic ovary syndrome etc.

About 90-95 percent of people with diabetes have Type 2, while about 5 percent have Type 1, and the remainder have gestational diabetes. It is the number 7 cause of death in the United States. More than 37 million people in the United States have diabetes, and 1 in 5 of them don’t know they have it. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than doubled.

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