Systematic review of spell-checkers for highly inflectional languages

  • Published: 14 November 2019
  • Volume 53 , pages 4051–4092, ( 2020 )

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spell checker research paper

  • Shashank Singh 1 &
  • Shailendra Singh 1  

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Performance of any word processor, search engine, social media relies heavily on the spell-checkers, grammar checkers etc. Spell-checkers are the language tools which break down the text to check the spelling errors. It cautions the user if there is any unintentional misspelling occurred in the text. In the area of spell-checking, we still lack an exhaustive study that covers aspects like strengths, limitations, handled errors, performance along with the evaluation parameters. In literature, spell-checkers for different languages are available and each one possesses similar characteristics however, have a different design. This study follows the guidelines of systematic literature review and applies it to the field of spell-checking. The steps of the systematic review are employed on 130 selected articles published in leading journals, premier conferences and workshops in the field of spell-checking of different inflectional languages. These steps include framing of the research questions, selection of research articles, inclusion/exclusion criteria and the extraction of the relevant information from the selected research articles. The literature about spell-checking is divided into key sub-areas according to the languages. Each sub-area is then described based on the technique being used. In this study, various articles are analyzed on certain criteria to reach the conclusion. This article suggests how the techniques from the other domains like morphology, part-of-speech, chunking, stemming, hash-table etc. can be used in development of spell-checkers. It also highlights the major challenges faced by researchers along with the future area of research in the field of spell-checking.

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Finite state machine

Dictionary lookup method

Morphological analysis

Edit distance

Minimum edit distance

Unicode splitting

Character-based longest short term memory

Soundex method

Levenstein edit distance

Confusion set

Reverse minimum edit distance

Direct dictionary lookup method

Edit distance method

Phonetic encoding method

Finite state representation

State table method

Finite state automata

Partition around medoid clustering

Double metaphone encoding

Word frequency

Sound and shape similarity

Reverse edit distance method

Tree-based algorithm

Parts of speech

Hidden Markov model

Graphical user interface

Finite state transition

Unknown word handling

Unknown proper noun handling

Application programming interface

Constituent word

Memory based language model

Finite state transition model

Dictionary approach

Canti check

Crowd sourcing

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The authors thank the reviewers for their insightful comments. The authors would also like to thank Ministry of Electronics and IT, Government of INDIA, for providing fellowship under Grant Number: PhD-MLA-4 (69)/2015-16 (Visvesvaraya PhD Scheme for Electronics and IT) to pursue Ph.D. work.

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Performance of any word processor, search engine, social media relies heavily on the spell-checkers, grammar checkers etc. Spell-checkers are the language tools which break down the text to check the spelling errors. It cautions the user if there is any unintentional misspelling occurred in the text. In the area of spell-checking, we still lack an exhaustive study that covers aspects like strengths, limitations, handled errors, performance along with the evaluation parameters. In literature, spell-checkers for different languages are available and each one possesses similar characteristics however, have a different design. This study follows the guidelines of systematic literature review and applies it to the field of spell-checking. The steps of the systematic review are employed on 130 selected articles published in leading journals, premier conferences and workshops in the field of spell-checking of different inflectional languages. These steps include framing of the research questions, selection of research articles, inclusion/exclusion criteria and the extraction of the relevant information from the selected research articles. The literature about spell-checking is divided into key sub-areas according to the languages. Each sub-area is then described based on the technique being used. In this study, various articles are analyzed on certain criteria to reach the conclusion. This article suggests how the techniques from the other domains like morphology, part-of-speech, chunking, stemming, hash-table etc. can be used in development of spell-checkers. It also highlights the major challenges faced by researchers along with the future area of research in the field of spell-checking.

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An Improved Text Extraction Approach with Auto Encoder for Creating Your Own Audiobook

As we all know, listening makes learning easier and interesting than reading. An audiobook is a software that converts text to speech. Though this sounds good, the audiobooks available in the market are not free and feasible for everyone. Added to this, we find that these audiobooks are only meant for fictional stories, novels or comics. A comprehensive review of the available literature shows that very little intensive work was done for image to speech conversion. In this paper, we employ various strategies for the entire process. As an initial step, deep learning techniques are constructed to denoise the images that are fed to the system. This is followed by text extraction with the help of OCR engines. Additional improvements are made to improve the quality of text extraction and post processing spell check mechanism are incorporated for this purpose. Our result analysis demonstrates that with denoising and spell checking, our model has achieved an accuracy of 98.11% when compared to 84.02% without any denoising or spell check mechanism.

Building Spell-Check Dictionary for Low-Resource Language by Comparing Word Usage

Ai-natural language processing (nlp).

Natural Language Processing (NLP) could be a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that allows machines to know the human language. Its goal is to form systems that can make sense of text and automatically perform tasks like translation, spell check, or topic classification. Natural language processing (NLP) has recently gained much attention for representing and analysing human language computationally. It's spread its applications in various fields like computational linguistics, email spam detection, information extraction, summarization, medical, and question answering etc. The goal of the Natural Language Processing is to style and build software system which will analyze, understand, and generate languages that humans use naturally, so as that you just could also be ready to address your computer as if you were addressing another person. Because it’s one amongst the oldest area of research in machine learning it’s employed in major fields like artificial intelligence speech recognition and text processing. Natural language processing has brought major breakthrough within the sector of COMPUTATION AND AI.

Domain-shift Conditioning using Adaptable Filtering via Hierarchical Embeddings for Robust Chinese Spell Check

An xml infrastructure.

Spell checking has both practical and theoretical significance. The practical connections seem obvious: spell checking makes it easier to find some kinds of errors in documents. But spell checking is sometimes harder and less capable in XML than it could be. If a spell checker could exploit markup instead of just ignoring it, could spell checking be easier and more useful? The theoretical foundations of spell checking may be less obvious, but every spell checker operationalizes both a simple model of language and a model of errors and error correction. The SCX (spell checking for XML) framework is intended to support the author's experimentation with different models of language and errors: it uses XML technologies to tokenize documents, spell check them, provide a user interface for acting on the flags raised by the spell checker, and inserting the corrections into the original text.

Data Extraction and Sentimental Analysis from “Twitter” using Web Scrapping.

In this paper , we attempt to do the sentimental analysis of the 2016 US presidential elections. Sentimental analysis requires the data to be extracted from websites or sources where people present their opinions, views ,complaints about the subjects that need to analyzed .Furthermore, it is necessary to ensure that the sample size of the data is large enough to get conclusive results .It is also necessary to ensure that the data is cleaned before it is used to make predictions. Cleaning is done using common techniques like tokenization, spell check ,etc. Sentimental Analysis is one of the by-products of Natural Language Processing . This paper includes data collection as well as classification of textual data based on machine learning .

An Effective Preprocessing Algorithm for Information Retrieval System

The innovation of web produced a huge of information, evaluates by empowering Internet users to post their assessments, remarks, and audits on the web. Preprocessing helps to understand a user query in the Information Retrieval (IR) system. IR acts as the container to representation, seeking and access information that relates to a user search string. The information is present in natural language by using some words; it’s not structured format, and sometimes that word often ambiguous. One of the major challenges determines in current web search vocabulary mismatch problem during the preprocessing. In an IR system determine a drawback in web search; the search query string is that the relationships between the query expressions and the expanded terms are limited. The query expressions relate to search term fetching information from the IR. The expanded terms by adding those terms that is most similar to the words of the search string. In this manuscript, we mainly focus on behind user’s search string on the web. We identify the best features within this context for term selection in supervised learning based model. In this proposed system the main focus of preprocessing techniques like Tokenization, Stemming, spell check, find dissimilar words and discover the keywords from the user query because provide better results for the user

Potentials of Chatbots for Spell Check among Youngsters

Chatbots are already being used successfully in many areas. This publication deals with the development and programming of a chatbot prototype to support learning processes. This Chatbot prototype is designed to help pupils in order to correct their spelling mistakes by providing correction proposals to them. Especially orthographic spelling mistake should be recognized by the chatbot and should be replaced by correction suggestions stored in test data.

A Study of Students’ Perception on The Use Facebook Group in Improving Writing

This study attempts to know the students’ perception on a Facebook group in improving writing skill on the tenth grade of SMA 5 Kendari that focus on enhancing students writing performance level and the brainstorm ideas at the pre-writing stage. Also, to find out how Facebook influence the students’ affective domain. The researcher employed mix method design with questionnaire as instrument to collect data from 36 students. The data was analyzed by calculating the frequency distribution of Likert  scale.  The  result  reveals  there  was  positive  perception  among  students  about  applying Facebook Group in improving writing. Particularly, Respondent (89.7%) spell – check feature helps students to avoid the error spelling and (91.6) student feel motivated when they got “like” from their friends.  It  is  suggested  that  future  research  to  investigate  the  teacher  and  students’  problem  in applying Facebook. In addition, the future study researcher may investigate the use Facebook Group in another skill of English.   Lastly, the future study may investigation the use other SNS not only Facebook but it can be Path, Twitter, or Instagram. Keywords: Facebook Group, Perception, Writing

A New Approach to Keyboard Inputting Error Prevention and Increasing Inputting Productivity

This article describes the initial concept and developments of a new approach to reducing the number of inputting errors that are made in working with computers and decreasing the time the inputter must spend correcting errors. The approach involves intercepting and correcting errors before they are designated as such by Spell Check and eliminating the need for the time and effort of Spell Check. The operating principles and concepts of this approach, called Super ErrorCorrect™, is described, along with a software suite, that enables the implementation and the testing of the approach. This paper reports on the changes and evolution that resulted from analysis and limited Beta Testing. The preliminary data shows that not only is the Super ErrorCorrect™ approach feasible, but substantial time is saved while error rates are reduced markedly. Some data also suggests that in addition to the time saved in not using Spell Check, there is a tendency for users to type faster as they do not get negative reinforcement when they type faster and make errors as the software fixes the error in real time. Researchers are invited to collaborate in further research and licenses to the technology and software are provided at no cost if research results will be publicly disclosed.

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Spell check: research.

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National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)

This fact sheet on spell check is part of the Accommodations Toolkit published by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO). It summarizes information and research findings on spell check as an accommodation [1] . This toolkit also contains a summary of states’ accessibility policies for spell check .

A paragraph of text with numerous misspellings underlined in red

What is spell check? Spell check is a software feature that identifies possible misspellings, and either autocorrects or suggests possible corrections (Cullen et al, 2008; MacArthur, 1999). It is sometimes referred to as spell checker, spelling checker, spelling assistance. Spell check can help students correct spelling errors with less time focused on the writing mechanics of spelling which then allows them to concentrate more broadly on developing ideas or content in the writing process (MacArthur, 1999).

What are the research findings on who should use this accommodation? Spell check has been used for students with various disabilities in the elementary grades (Finch & Finch, 2013) and secondary grades (Finizio, 2008; Koretz & Hamilton, 2001). According to research findings, most of the students who receive this accommodation have specific learning disabilities (SLD) (Finizio, 2008; Koretz & Hamilton, 2001).

What are the research findings on implementation of spell check? No studies were identified on the implementation of spell check. Three studies examined the frequency of spell check.

  • Two studies examined how frequently students received the spell check accommodation, and both found that spell check was one of the least frequently assigned accommodations at the elementary (Finch & Finch, 2013) and secondary (Koretz & Hamilton, 2001) levels.
  • Finizio (2008) examined the match relationship between instructional accommodations and state assessment accommodations documented in the individualized education programs (IEPs) of secondary students with various disabilities, most of whom had SLD. The results indicated that spell checking was mostly used as an instructional accommodation and not generally used on assessments.

What perceptions do students and teachers have about spell check? No studies were found that examined student or teacher perceptions of spell check as an assessment accommodation.

What have we learned overall? Research studies found that spell check is one of least assigned assessment accommodations, though it may be used more often during instruction. It is used for elementary and secondary students with various disabilities, and is most frequently provided to students with SLD. No studies were identified that examined the effect of spell check on student performance. Research is needed on the effect of spell check on the performance of students with different disabilities, including English learners with disabilities. Likewise, there is a need to explore teacher and student perceptions of the spell check accommodation.

  • Cullen, J., Richards, S., & Frank, C. L. (2008). Using software to enhance the writing skills of students with special needs . Journal of Special Education Technology , 23 (2), 33–44.
  • Finch, W. H., & Finch, M. E. H. (2013). Differential item functioning analysis using a multilevel Rasch mixture model: Investigating the impact of disability status and receipt of testing accommodations . Journal of Applied Measurement , 15 (2), 133–151.
  • Finizio, N. J., II. (2008). The relationship between instructional and assessment accommodations on student IEPs in a single urban school district (Publication No. 3313763) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Boston]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
  • Koretz, D., & Hamilton, L. (2001). The performance of students with disabilities on New York’s Revised Regents Comprehensive Examination in English (CSE Technical Report No. 540). Center for the Study of Evaluation (CRESST), UCLA.
  • MacArthur, C. A. (1999). Word prediction for students with severe spelling problems . Learning Disability Quarterly , 22 (3), 158–172.


All rights reserved. Any or all portions of this document may be reproduced and distributed without prior permission, provided the source is cited as:

  • Goldstone, L., Lazarus, S. S., Hendrickson, K., Rogers, C., & Hinkle, A. R. (2022). Spell check: Research (NCEO Accommodations Toolkit #27a) . National Center on Educational Outcomes.

The Center is supported through a Cooperative Agreement (#H326G210002) with the Research to Practice Division, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. The Center is affiliated with the Institute on Community Integration at the College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota. Consistent with EDGAR §75.62, the contents of this report were developed under the Cooperative Agreement from the U.S. Department of Education, but do not necessarily represent the policy or opinions of the U.S. Department of Education or Offices within it. Readers should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Project Officer: David Egnor

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You could use a plagiarism checker free, though, these tools often lack grammatical support. Given the high stakes and rigorous requirements, the aid of a plagiarism checker without the needed support of a grammar checker could mean the difference between an “A” paper and a “C” or even “D” paper.

Thankfully, the EasyBib Plus plagiarism tool provides all-in-one support to cover all your bases. Our premium essay checker is convenient, easy to use, and includes access to a grammar and spell checker, plus a plagiarism checker. With a single scan, you’ll receive personalized feedback to help identify potentially missing citations and help improve your sentence structure, punctuation, grammar, and more.

Not sure if that noun is spelled correctly, or if the preposition at the end of your sentence is grammatically correct? The EasyBib Plus plagiarism tool is your one-stop shop to help check plagiarism, get grammatical suggestions, correct spelling and punctuation errors, and help create polished papers you can be proud to turn in. And, we haven’t told you the best part yet: you can try our tool free and scan your work for grammar suggestions right now!

Access all the tools today!

spell checker research paper

A Grammar Check for Peace of Mind

You know that grammar plays a significant role in your assignments. Not only does it factor into your overall grade, but without clear and precise language, your ideas can lose their impact or might even be misunderstood entirely. Still, with so many different parts of speech and rules to learn and apply, it’s not uncommon to get them mixed up and find yourself questioning your knowledge now and again:

Can you use an adverb to modify a noun? (No. You need an adjective for that.)

Well, can you use it to modify a pronoun ? (Still no.)

What do they modify, then? (Almost everything else. Fun, right?)

Ugh. (That was an interjection .)

Does this have to be so difficult? (Nope!)

Scanning your paper with the EasyBib Plus writing tool delivers more than the basic punctuation and spell check functions that come standard in word processing programs. You’ll receive immediate, targeted feedback that can help improve the sentence structure and style of your writing. Not only can this help ensure that you don’t lose points off your grade for grammatical errors such as mismatched verb tense, but it can also help to clarify your meaning and strengthen your arguments by eliminating confusing punctuation and run-on sentences that confuse readers.

Reviewing your work to correct errors and refine the flow of your writing is a critical part of the revision process for novices and novelists alike. Even the most conscientious of wordsmiths might make mistakes, such as using a conjunctive adverb in place of a coordinating conjunction or pairing a plural determiner with an uncountable word. They likely appreciate a subscription-based or free grammar check as much as a beginning writer. That’s why the EasyBib Plus writing tool is designed for all writers, from students who are still learning the fundamentals to published professionals who get paid by the word.

The EasyBib Plus writing tool provides quick, targeted feedback that you can use to help improve your writing immediately. Also, our free resource library is available 24/7, just like the rest of our tools, to help you brush up on the areas that challenge you the most (Conjunctive what? Uncountable who?) That means you can continue to sharpen your skills and improve your writing over time, which will help make finishing your next project easier.

Ready to give your paper a boost? Sign up for EasyBib Plus or scan a paper right now for a free spell check—it’s easy!Just upload or copy and paste your paper to the online grammar check tool and, in a matter of seconds, you’ll be able to receive up to 5 feedback cards so you can begin polishing your draft.

To learn more about proofreading tools, you can find more info here. Or, for more tips on grammar, punctuation, and style, check out this useful reference .

Why is Grammar So Important, Anyway?

Why is grammar important? As long as others know what you mean, does it really matter if you use proper grammar? These are age-old questions, but the answers remain unchanged. Grammar is important for many reasons:

Communication:  Communication is about more than merely listening and talking. We communicate in myriad ways: with our voices, our mannerisms, our facial expressions, our actions, and frequently, our written words. Written communication is just as important as all the other ways we broadcast our thoughts and feelings. Unlike our other communication methods, though, written communication leaves a record. While most of us relax our style when talking to or texting friends, the fact remains that more formal venues require a more formal tone. Proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation are a necessary element of professional and academic writing, so running your work through a spelling and grammar check before you submit it is an absolute must.

Clarity:  Expressing your thoughts, ideas, and opinions is an uphill battle when you communicate them with less-than-stellar punctuation, spelling, and grammar. A missing or misplaced comma, for example, can entirely change your meaning:

  • Call me Ishmael = My name is Ishmael.
  • Call me, Ishmael = I want Ishmael to call me.

Spelling errors can result in similarly muddled meaning:

  • Her shoes perfectly complemented her dress. = Her shoes and dress go well together.
  • Her shoes perfectly complimented her dress. = Her shoes can both speak and engage in flattery.

Grammar deficiencies such as a dangling modifier yield similarly confusing results:

  • I saw the girl’s purple backpack in the library. = The purple backpack belonging to the girl is in the library; I saw it.
  • I saw the purple girl’s backpack in the library. = You know the girl who mysteriously turned purple? I saw her backpack in the library. This week has not been easy on her.

Credibility: Establishing your credibility is critical whether you’re writing for school or business. Proving that you can reliably communicate using proper grammar is essential to establishing and maintaining the trust of your teachers, professors, readers, customers, and colleagues.

To learn even more about the importance of English grammar in writing, check here .

What Happens After I Upload My Paper?

Once you upload a paper, the EasyBib Plus grammar checker scans your text and highlights grammar issues within your document so you can see it in context. For users running a grammar check and spell check using the grammar check free tool, up to the first 5 issues are shown. For subscription subscribers, all of the areas that require your review will be highlighted once the scan is complete.

No matter which version of the tool you’re using, your feedback will include detailed explanations so you can understand why the text was flagged. Other highlighted areas will include examples of how the issues can be fixed. Some will include a detailed explanation as to why the issue was flagged. This personalized feedback allows you to make an educated decision about whether to edit your text or dismiss the suggestion, so you’re always in control of your final draft.

Subscription users also have the plagiarism checker at their disposal when scanning their papers for style and grammar suggestions. Just as with our other writing tools, when you use the tool to check plagiarism, changes are never made without your review, so you are always in the driver’s seat. You can review each highlighted area as well as the sources of matching text and will always be given a choice to either accept or ignore both citation and grammar suggestions.

Whether you are a student or a professional, the EasyBib Plus tools are powerful allies that can help you improve your paper, establish credibility as a writer, and maintain an ethical writing process.

Try our checker free for 3 days to see what you think*. Trust us; you’ll wonder how you got along so far without it!

*See Terms and Conditions

spell checker research paper

Check for Unintentional Plagiarism

Persistent use of the best grammar checker and spell checker you can find will help to shape up the style and substance of your composition. However, to ensure the integrity of your work and root out unintentional instances of academic dishonesty, you’ll also need to incorporate a subscription-based or free plagiarism checker for students.

The ability to scan your paper and check plagiarism and grammar before submitting your work is an invaluable tool for students. It’s so valuable, in fact, that students are not the only ones who consistently use this type of software.

Many teachers and professors use a service to ensure that student papers are original and include properly formatted and sourced citations for all reference materials. For some, this may be a consistent element of their grading process, while others may utilize one only when they feel there is a reason to do so.

What Exactly Does a Plagiarism Checker Do?

If you’ve used an online plagiarism checker before, you may be familiar with the process that these tools employ. For those who have never used one, it can be helpful to understand how these tools work and what you should expect as a result of using one.

The most basic free tools will scan your paper and provide you with a percentage that indicates how much of your work is original. This feature can be useful to a point, as some instructors and institutions set a percentage for the amount of similar text that is considered acceptable. This policy does not mean that they are lenient about academic dishonesty but, instead, that they recognize that similar or even matching word choice is not always an indicator of copying.

However, some schools do not tolerate any form of incremental plagiarism, period. In these institutions, “check paper for plagiarism” is likely a standard action when grading all papers.

With a free plagiarism checker, the percentage of word-for-word plagiarism in your text may be the only feedback you receive. Moreover, some of these providers may wade in unethical waters, and offer essay writing services in conjunction with their checking services. This is why many students and teachers prefer subscription-based checkers that focus on integrity, such as the EasyBib writing tools.

With our premium tools, you get more than just supporting proof that your paper is original and in your own words. Your writing is scanned for potentially matching text and areas that needs your attention is highlighted. We’ll provide you with the source of the matching text so you can review it and decide how to proceed. If you agree that a citation is needed, our citation tools and resources will provide you with the information you need to help format and insert the new sources in your text as well as your works cited page.

How Does the EasyBib Plus Online Plagiarism Checker Work?

The EasyBib Plus writing tool provides an all-in-one spell check, grammar review, and plagiarism checker that not only helps you with the paper you’re writing now but enables you to gain new knowledge and improve your writing for the future, too.

Our essay checker searches online for phrases, sentences, or passages that are similar to those in your paper. If it returns matching text, this may indicate that you have passages that are missing citations.

Just as with many checkers, our tool will tell you how many instances of matching text it finds in your paper. Our plagiarism tool is designed to do more than most free tools, however.

When a portion of your paper is flagged for review, we provide you with the source that it matches. As with our online spell check tool, you have the power to review each area and choose how to proceed. If you decide to cite the flagged text, you can review the suggested source and access our citation tools to help create a proper citation and start building a bibliography for your paper. Or, you may determine that no citation is needed, in which case it’s simple to dismiss the suggestion and continue to the next section.

If you’re unsure about how to proceed, our library of resources can help you learn more and make an educated decision. In this way, you gain more than just the ability to correct your work; over time, you can learn how to avoid plagiarism altogether.

Reasons Your Teacher May Run Your Paper Through a Plagiarism Detector

As stated previously, your teachers and professors grade papers with a fixed process that includes “check paper for plagiarism” as a standard, across-the-board action. Others may check for plagiarism only when they feel there is cause to do so. There are a few red flags that may stand out to them while reviewing a paper that would lead to their running a plagiarism check, including:

Style/Voice:  Most teachers are familiar with the style and voice that you use in your writing. While most will hope that the feedback they provide when grading your work will help you to improve problem areas over time, a paper or essay that has a dramatically different style or voice than the work you’ve previously submitted can be a red flag.

Inconsistency:  Changes in the font, font size, formality, formatting, and more may indicate that portions of a paper have been copied and pasted. If these inconsistent passages are not presented as quotations or don’t include citations, this may further indicate to your teacher that there’s plagiarism in the paper.

Old References:  Part of a well-researched paper is verifying the legitimacy and relevance of your sources. While some older references may be acceptable depending on the topic, if all of your sources are outdated, it may lead your teacher to believe that you’ve recycled your own work or someone else’s.

Looking for a checker to try? With EasyBib Plus you get unlimited checks to give you peace of mind when turning in your papers!

What is Plagiarism?

If you’re looking for a free online plagiarism checker , you’re already aware that it’s not something you want to be found in your papers. However, you may still be wondering: what does plagiarism mean? It’s a reasonable question and one that merits exploring. After all, some of the actions and circumstances that fall within the plagiarism definition come as a surprise to those who only learn that they’ve committed them after it’s too late.

So what is plagiarism? To define plagiarism in the most basic sense, you might say that it is taking someone else’s ideas and words and passing them off as your own.

If your goal is avoiding plagiarism entirely, you’ll need to go beyond the basics to thoroughly define plagiarism, recognize it, and keep clear of it. Some examples of plagiarism that students find surprising include forgotten citations, poor paraphrasing, and re-submitting your own work in whole or in part for more than one assignment. This useful article provides more help in recognizing and understanding the different forms that academic dishonesty can take.

Of course, using your own words and ideas does not count as plagiarism, nor does using common knowledge . Basically, common knowledge is information that is well known by the average person. Examples of common knowledge:

  • there are 12 months in a year
  • the freezing point of Celsius is zero degrees
  • Socrates was a Greek philosopher

So should you only include your original thoughts and common knowledge in your papers? Of course not! Research-based assignments are meant to demonstrate your skills as a researcher, after all, as well as your ability to build upon the work of others to formulate new ideas. To avoid accidentally committing an act that falls within the plagiarism definition when you’re using another person’s words or ideas, though, you need to give them proper credit. This means you’ll need to clearly identify direct quotations or properly paraphrase them when including them in your paper.

Regardless of your approach, you’ll also need to cite your sources according to the style your professor specifies. Generally, you will use MLA format for the arts and humanities and APA format for the sciences, but it’s always best to check with your instructor when you’re unsure.

If you know what style to use but still aren’t sure how to create your citations, don’t fret! Our library of resources includes free guides to help you learn about various styles so you can properly structure and place them. And our premium tools not only help you check grammar, spelling, and originality in your papers, but subscribers also enjoy access to our citation creation tools!

What are the Different Types of Plagiarism?

In addition to the question “what is plagiarism,” you may also be wondering, “why do students plagiarize?” While some students do intentionally plagiarize because they believe they can pass off someone else’s work as their own to avoid spending time on their assignments, many others do so accidentally. They may not understand how broad the plagiarism definition is or they haven’t learned how to research and cite their sources properly. That is why it is vital to recognize plagiarism in all of its forms if you wish to ensure the integrity of your work.

Examples of plagiarism & How to prevent it

Direct plagiarism:

Intentionally copying another person’s work without including a citation that gives credit to the source. When most students are asked to identify potential plagiarism examples and behaviors, this direct and deliberate act is what they think of first.

  • Prevention: If you use an idea or quote from another source, cite it in the text. Make it clear that it was not your own words. 

Incremental plagiarism:

Copying parts of another person’s work, such as phrases, sentences, or paragraphs without crediting the source. When deciding which tools to use to check a paper for plagiarism , instructors often seek out those that will identify incremental forms as well as instances of direct copying and similar phrasing.

  • Prevention : Decide to either directly quote the phrases or sentences you want to use, or write a good paraphrase. In both cases, be sure to add a citation. Using a plagiarism checker could also help you identify problematic passages.


Academic self-plagiarism occurs when a student submits the same paper or parts of a paper for more than one assignment. When your instructors are grading your papers, they’re assessing your research and writing skills in the present. When you submit work that you completed in the past, they are both unable to evaluate your current skills and unaware that you haven’t completed the assignment.

  • Prevention: Write a new paper for each assignment you’re assigned. If you feel strongly that your past work could enhance your new paper, speak to your instructor and ask for permission first.

Misleading citations:

Including a citation for a quote or idea that misrepresents the source material. This can occur if a student does not understand the reference they are citing; if a student includes a citation for a disreputable source; or the source material simply does not align with the idea or argument that the student has attributed to it.

  • Prevention: Carefully review your assignment to understand it. As you research, take the time to evaluate each source notes . Remember, it’s better to have quality citations over an abundance of citations.

Invented sources:

If a reference in a student’s bibliography is found not to exist, it is considered an invented source. This may occur if a student couldn’t find a reputable source to back their argument, or if they needed to include additional references to meet the requirements of the assignment and chose to take an unethical shortcut rather than completing the required amount of research. No matter the reason, this behavior ultimately hurts them in the long run. Not only will they fail to gain the experience they need to conduct research in the future properly, but they’ll also experience significant consequences if they’re caught.

  • Prevention: Set aside time to do proper research so you can find enough sources. Start creating a list of sources as you’re researching and take good notes. This will help you keep track of your sources so none are forgotten. If you do end up forgetting where a quote came from, a paper checker could help you pinpoint the original source. 


Patchwriting is often confused with paraphrasing, but there’s a significant difference. When you paraphrase, you demonstrate that you understand the topic well enough to restate it in your own words. When you patchwrite or spin, it is more akin to a word-swapping game; there’s no need to understand the subject, merely to have access to a thesaurus so you can substitute enough synonyms to mask the source material. This can be intentional, but it may also be a result of having a poor understanding of how to paraphrase.

  • Prevention: Using your own words, write down the key points of the phrase or idea, and put them together in a sentence. Be sure to include a citation as well. 

A good way to test if you’re patchwriting or paraphrasing is to remove your sources from view. If you can write about what you’ve read without looking at the source material, you likely understand it well enough to paraphrase it. If you have to review the source material with each new sentence or consult a thesaurus while writing about it (except when you’re adding direct quotations), you may be spinning your sources instead of paraphrasing them.

Academic Integrity Policies and Statements

If you’re still uncertain about what counts as plagiarism, look for your school’s/ organization’s policies on academic integrity and plagiarism. The policies of academic institutions usually cover what is considered plagiarism, the consequences of committing it, and how to avoid it. One great example is Purdue University’s Academic Integrity statement .

What are the Consequences of Plagiarism?

No matter the setting, plagiarism is not taken lightly, and the consequences can be significant. For a good reason, too! Whether in an academic or professional setting, the plagiarism consequences reflect the seriousness of the act, which is ultimately a form of theft that hurts everyone involved.

Just as with the theft of a tangible object, there can be legal punishments for plagiarism. It is, after all, a form of copyright infringement in many instances. A quick search for plagiarism articles will reveal that professional instances of intellectual theft have resulted in civil lawsuits and can even be criminally prosecuted under rare circumstances. In addition to the possible legal consequences, professionals may lose their jobs or have to start over in a new field after their acts of fraud are uncovered.

As a student, you’re likely to wonder what happens if you plagiarize in college or high school. While there will almost always be consequences for this behavior, there is no one-size-fits-all plagiarism sentence. Depending on the circumstances, academic dishonesty could result in outcomes such as:

  • You might get a zero for the assignment in which the infringement occurred.
  • You may receive a failing grade for the class. If it is a required course, this could leave you without enough credits to move on to the next level until you can repeat it and, in some instances, postpone graduation.
  • You may be expelled from your school or university.

The academic dishonesty may be noted on your transcript, which can lead to you not getting into your preferred college, graduate school, or Ph.D. program in the future.

Nobody wants to be known as a fraud or to have a reputation for dishonesty follow them through their career. And, given the consequences that can extend beyond just their reputation, it’s no wonder that professional and academic writers who wish to avoid them take the time to understand the complete definition of plagiarism and run their work through a plagiarism checker before sending it out into the world.

Even the vigilant can fall prey to inferior tools, unfortunately. Before selecting a plagiarism checker, you should understand how they work and what they can (and cannot) detect.

How We Check for Plagiarism

When exploring how to check for plagiarism, most students and professionals conclude that including a checking tool in their revision process is not only helpful but necessary. When you consider the Herculean task of checking each line of your paper against the text of each of your resources, the benefits of a checker are clear. Moreover, this manual approach would only alert you to matching text in the sources you’re aware of, after all, and leaves the sources you haven’t reviewed untouched.

But, hang on. Why would sources you haven’t reviewed factor into your review? The answer to this lies in the plagiarism definition you learned above. What is plagiarism? It’s presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, intentionally or otherwise. It is not uncommon to uncover an idea while you’re researching a topic and later misremember it as your own. This might even occur years after you originally came across it.

You might wonder: how can plagiarism be avoided if you have to account for the source of every thought you include in your work? A few exceptions minimize the scope of this. Common knowledge about your topic does not need to be supported by a citation, nor does knowledge that you gained through your personal experience. Using a subscription-based or free plagiarism checker will help you locate any passages that may fall into these categories so you can review them and decide for yourself whether a citation is needed.

EasyBib Plus writing tools provide easy, convenient, and reliable support to help you find potentially missed citations and can help you improve your paper into a high-quality paper with integrity. Simply upload your paper, select the checker, then sit back and relax as the site scans your document. In mere moments, we’ll search the web for passages of similar text and highlight duplicate content for your review.

Regardless of the tools you use to help you revise and polish your work, it’s ultimately your responsibility to ensure that you’re writing and submitting ethical work. That’s why our tools go beyond the basics and require your participation. The tool never automatically makes changes to your paper, but only flags sections that may need your attention and provides you with the matching source so you can to make an educated decision.

If you find that a citation is needed, our citation tools can help you create properly formatted citations and develop a complete bibliography. And, if you review the passage and determine that the match is coincidental, you can dismiss the alert and move on to the next.

Seamless Citation Creation

Professional writers and students alike can find creating citations incredibly confusing. Nevertheless, they are an integral part of a well-written and researched paper and a requirement in almost all academic settings. But, have you ever wondered why they are so important? Citations really do have a purpose—other than driving us crazy— that make it necessary always to cite our sources.

We cite our sources for a few important reasons:

We need to give credit where credit is due. When you use a quote from someone else’s work, you need to give credit for using their words and ideas. Research is often based on the works and ideas of others. However, to include the words and ideas of another without giving them proper credit is to plagiarize, even if the act was unintentional.

In addition, showing that you’ve done proper research by including in text & parenthetical citations and a comprehensive list of sources to back up your arguments gives your work a layer of credibility that can help you earn the trust of your reader or teacher.

Readers can find the sources you used.  When you’re writing high school or undergraduate papers, your only readers may be your instructors and peers. However, including citations at every level of writing helps to ensure that anyone who reads your work can access your sources to check their accuracy, learn more about your topic, and further their own research.

Sources can take your research and learning to the next level, too. When you are conducting research on a topic, checking the works cited or annotated bibliographies prepared by your sources can lead you down new avenues in your research to further develop your ideas and help you write your papers.

Correctly utilizing citations gives strength to your thoughts and opinions. Understanding the value of citations does not, unfortunately, make them any easier to create. We know how confusing it can be, but don’t throw in the towel on learning how to cite websites in MLA , create your APA citation website references, or format your works cited —this is where we come in!

While a free online plagiarism detector may tell you how much of your work is unoriginal and may even identify the passages that meet their plagiarize definition, a premium EasyBib Plus plagiarism checker account also gives you access to our powerful citation resources and generator so you can:

Scan your papers with the plagiarism tool to check for plagiarism-free work before you submit.

Review flagged passages to determine if they meet the plagiarism definition and create unlimited citations in APA format and MLA format for anything fitting the plagiarism meaning. Need more styles ? Check out our regular citation generator for thousands of choices and free resources to help you learn how to create an APA parenthetical citation , APA book citation , APA works cited , and so much more!

Build a full bibliography for your paper right along with your parenthetical or in-text citations, which can save you hours of work along the way compared to manually creating and formatting them.

How Else Do We Help You Improve Your Paper?

The EasyBib Plus plagiarism detector helps you check your content or paper for text that may be missing a citation—which may fall within the definition of plagiarism—to help ensure you don’t accidentally plagiarize. It also includes grammar check and spelling check tools to help identify errors and suggest grammatical tweaks that could help to elevate the level of your writing.

Running a plagiarism check couldn’t be easier! Just upload your paper to the online proofreader, and in a few moments we’ll have your writing and citing suggestions. And, there’s no need to worry about your paper after it’s been scanned.

Run a Grammar and Spell Check for Free!

There’s no denying that your schoolwork can be challenging at times, and your assignments can lead to some late nights even when you’ve started them early. The last thing you want is to submit assignments that don’t reflect your best effort, but it can occasionally be quite the juggling act to get everything done on time.

Why not let our plagiarism checker free up space on your calendar by helping you revise your papers quickly and efficiently? The EasyBib Plus paper checker is your one-stop shop to check for plagiarism, create citations, spot spelling mistakes, and receive feedback on your grammar and style.

When you proofread and do a manual spelling check on work that you’ve written, you’re more likely to overlook mistakes. This is even more likely if you’re pressed for time or trying to complete several different assignments at once. There are tricks to help minimize this, such as reading your work aloud to identify poor grammar or reading each sentence backward to find spelling errors. When time is of the essence, though, these solutions aren’t the most convenient or useful options. That’s why many students seek the assistance of online tools that will run a grammar and plagiarism check on their work.

Are you asking yourself, “ How do I check my grammar online ?” We’ve got the perfect checker for you! Our advanced tools help you find and correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation mistakes. Our targeted feedback and free writing and citing resources help you learn as you go to improve your writing over time.

The best part? You can use our grammar and writing tools any time of the day, any day of the year for! Looking to try it? Just upload or copy and paste your text into our online proofreader for a free grammar check with up to 5 suggestions, or sign up for EasyBib Plus today! EasyBib Plus gives you use of the plagiarism checker and unlimited access to suggestions that can help improve your spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, writing style, and grammar.

Published February 3, 2019. Updated April 9, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Melissa DeVrieze Meyer . Michele is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. You can find her here on Twitter. Melissa is a professional writer and editor based in New Jersey. She writes for academic brands and independent publishers about writing, grammar, and literature, and creates study and curriculum materials for ESL learners. You can find her on Twitter .

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

  • Corpus ID: 17858148

Spell Checker for OCR

  • Yogomaya Mohapatra , A. Mishra , A. Mishra
  • Published 2013
  • Computer Science

6 Citations

Customised ocr correction for historical medical text, a performance comparison and post-processing error correction technique to ocrs for printed tamil texts, post-processing methodology for word level telugu character recognition systems using unicode approximation models, searching corrupted document collections, enhancement of text recognition in scene images, understanding error correction and its role as part of the communication channel in environments composed of self-integrating systems.

  • Highly Influenced

14 References

Techniques for automatically correcting words in text, automatic spelling correction using a trigram similarity measure, spelling correction for search engine queries, developing a spell checker as an expert system, a study of n-gram and decision tree letter language modeling methods, n-gram statistics for natural language understanding and text processing, history (forward n-gram) or future (backward n-gram) which model to consider for n-gram analysis in bangla, related papers.

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If you’re committed to delivering flawless, error-free writing, Paperpal’s online spell checker is your friend. Achieve the best version of your paper, knowing that Paperpal checks every word you write. Your journey to excellent writing is right here, right now.

Try the Paperpal English spell checker for FREE!

Frequently asked questions.

Paperpal’s English spell checker is a valuable resource for those engaged in scholarly pursuits. Students can use the free spell checker to write better and boost their grades, while researchers can rely on the AI writing tool to consistently deliver clear, credible, and high-quality academic writing. It is beneficial for those with English as a second language, assisting them with spelling corrections, appropriate choice of words, and effective phrasing.

Could you condense hours of editing your academic writing into a few minutes? This is precisely what Paperpal’s spelling corrector, tailored for researchers, helps you do. The online spell checker corrects capitalization, spacing, and spelling mistakes, including scientific terminology and word choice, then goes deeper with comprehensive language checks, covering grammar, punctuation, and overall readability.

Yes, it can! We understand the need to meet journal requirements, including the preferred English dialect, so Paperpal’s online spell checker is designed to recognize and suggest edits based on your preference. The free spell checker helps you adhere to British and American English spelling conventions, including specific rules for punctuation and writing style (e.g., date formats).

There are no word limits on the academic text. You can run through Paperpal’s online spell checker. Whether several pages long or only a few lines, our free spell checker will work magic to perfect your work in minutes. You can try the spelling corrector online for free; if you require more support than our free plan allows, sign up for the Paperpal Prime subscription to unlock all our features and enjoy unlimited spell checks and language editing support!

Absolutely! Paperpal provides real-time language, grammar, and spell checks to help you at every stage of your academic writing journey. With all the same features available online, including the free spell checker, the Paperpal for Word add-in is free and easy to access. Visit to sign up or log in to Paperpal, then follow the simple instructions to get started.

You can immediately use any of Paperpal’s tools, including the spelling corrector, to refine your academic writing. If you need additional support, over and above what our free plan offers, we recommend the Paperpal Prime subscription, which offers complete access to our advanced writing features. The Prime subscription unlocks all of Paperpal’s advanced AI features, including unlimited rewrite and word reduction suggestions, contextual synonyms, academic translation, editing modes, consistency checks, and even in-depth technical checks to ready your research manuscript for journal submission.

Paperpal is an AI writing assistant that help academics write better, faster with real-time suggestions for in-depth language and grammar correction. Trained on millions of research manuscripts enhanced by professional academic editors, Paperpal delivers human precision at machine speed.   Try it for free or upgrade to  Paperpal Prime , which unlocks unlimited access to premium features like academic translation, paraphrasing, contextual synonyms, consistency checks, submission readiness and more. It’s like always having a professional academic editor by your side! Go beyond limitations and experience the future of academic writing.  Get Paperpal Prime now at just US$12 a month !

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  • CACTUS and Morressier Partner to Improve Scholarly Workflows with Paperpal Preflight’s AI-Powered Checks
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Free essay and paper checker

A free essay checker or paper checker can help you boost your academic performance. We all have our strengths and weaknesses. Maybe you’re great at science, math, sports, or art, but writing essays has never been your forte. Or maybe you’re an excellent writer and you just need a quick proofread to make sure you haven’t overlooked any subtle errors. Either way, QuillBot’s AI-driven essay checker has you covered.

What is an essay checker ?

Proofreading your own writing often leads to frustration. It’s too easy to gloss over mistakes after you’ve read your work dozens of times. Using an essay checker for free is like having a professor who’s always available to give you feedback on a sentence that isn’t quite right.

An essay checker is a tool that examines any text you type into it and points out grammar and spelling errors. It also checks your punctuation and phrasing, then corrects any mistakes. The result is an error-free essay that you’re proud to submit.

When you’re writing for a grade, there’s no question you need to write well. At a minimum, that means using proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation. QuillBot can help you achieve all of that, and did we mention it’s free? But it goes further to include these benefits, too:

Academic integrity

Consistency, learning opportunity.


How does QuillBot’s essay/paper checker work?

You won’t believe how easy it is to use! When you need an essay grammar check, simply go to the QuillBot website and click on essay checker on the footer of the website. Paste your essay into the box, and within a few seconds, you’ll see lines appear under any part of the text that might need correction. Then, you have a choice: You can accept or reject each suggestion one at a time, or you can review the entire essay and then click Fix All Errors if you like all of the suggestions. A single click is all it takes!

Another way to accomplish your essay editing is to write your essay directly in QuillBot. Our handy formatting tools let you add headings, bold text, italics, and other details so you can compose an essay that’s neatly formatted while correcting errors in real time.

What can be checked in QuillBot’s essay evaluator

Our essay checker and corrector will help you spot the usual writing errors—misplaced commas, "their" instead of "there," incomplete sentences, and so on. But there’s so much more to good writing, and many free writing tools don’t quite get you there. These are a few examples of next-level mistakes that you can root out with assistance from QuillBot’s essay corrector:

Lack of fluency

As a multilingual English speaker, you might question whether your phrasing reads naturally to native English speakers. You can use QuillBot’s paper checker for free to solve this problem. It also accounts for different English dialects if, say, you need to convert your essay from US English to UK English.

Tricky plurals

Did you know the plural of thesis is theses? Did you know the plural of analysis is analyses (which is also the spelling of analyzes in UK English)? Did you know the plural of genus is genera? QuillBot does

If you need a new way to state an idea, QuillBot can help. Our Grammar Checker includes the Paraphrase Text button. Clicking it moves your text to the Paraphraser , where you can choose from tons of words and phrases that have the same or a similar meaning. It’s a great way to add nuance and interest to your writing or to find just the right word.

Unnecessary capitalization

Many writers capitalize words that are important but are not proper nouns. Capitalized text can be harder to read and make your paper look cluttered, so use QuillBot’s essay evaluator to make sure you’re capitalizing only the words you should.

Extra words

If you’ve ever been told you’re long-winded or your writing is “wordy,” QuillBot can help you write more concisely by suggesting you remove words that don’t add value.

Extra spaces

Still typing two spaces after a period? Our paper checker can help you find excess spaces and delete them. It also shows you when they appear in the middle of sentences or at the end of paragraphs.

Become a better writer with QuillBot’s writing tools

Besides a paper check, we have other writing resources you can take advantage of our other writing resources. Plagiarism is unacceptable when you’re writing an essay, so try our Plagiarism Checker. You might be interested in these as well:

Get a grasp on the main idea with our Summarizer.

Citation Generator

Help readers find your sources easily with the Citation Generator.

QuillBot Flow

Combine all of our useful tools into a streamlined word processor with the QuillBot Flow.

Get the help you need to make the grade

Use QuillBot’s essay checker for free online to ditch the stress and be confident you’re turning in an exceptional paper.

Trusted and used by top-tier institutions including:

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QuillBot essay checker FAQs

Quillbot’s essay checker is your complete essay checking tool..

Our free essay checking tool gives your essay one final review of usage, grammar, spelling, and punctuation. You can feel great every time you write an essay.


Instantly corrects grammatical errors

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Unlimited essay checks

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Share your requirements with us and our team will respond to you promptly., free grammar checker.

Enhance your writing instantly with Trinka's AI-powered free grammar checker. Trinka goes beyond simple grammar and spelling corrections, taking your writing to the next level. Available in English and Spanish.

Original Text

Texto original, get real-time grammar check on your favorite websites for free, your free trinka account.

Check your writing for up to 5000 words every month and notice an all-round improvement in your language and style.

Best Free Online Grammar Checker

Trinka is an AI-powered, free grammar checker and language enhancement writing assistant designed specifically for academic and research paper proofreading. In addition to advanced grammar checks, Trinka improves your writing for vocabulary, tone, syntax, and more. Trinka offers advanced grammar checks and contextual spelling corrections instantly and lets you improve your writing in minutes. 

Trinka provides real-time writing suggestions and advanced grammar checks to help professionals and academicians ensure formal, concise, and engaging writing. Trinka's AI grammar checker is trained on millions of well-written papers and articles covering 1300+ subject areas including medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, engineering, humanities, business, and arts to give you the most relevant suggestions for your subject.

Who can use this Grammar Checker?

Trinka is ideal for anyone looking to improve their English writing skills. Trinka's free grammar checker tool is trusted by academics, copywriters, marketers, product teams, bloggers, and more.

More than a Grammar and Punctuation Checker

Advanced grammar checks.

Trinka goes beyond the basic grammar and spelling checks to evaluate your writing for advanced grammar errors and suggests language enhancements to improve your writing quality.

Neither the healthy individuals nor the patient recognize recognizes the visual discrepancies.

Sentence Structure

Trinka's sentence corrector helps you structure your sentences better based on your subject matter, making your writing easier to read for your audience.  

The students don't enjoy to go going over the same rules again and again.

Word Choice

Trinka fixes the errors in word choice that make your writing unclear. Trinka makes your writing concise and clear, so that you can communicate your intent accurately.

One of the reasons is because that the fabrication cost for of steel members depends upon the material.

Advanced Spell Check

Trinka’s free spell checker understands the context of your writing and helps you pick the right word for your topic. No more awkward spelling errors! 

The Bonferoni Bonferroni test was used to check for statistical significance.

Other AI Tools Available with Trinka Grammar Checker



Experience enhanced clarity and tone in your writing by rephrasing text with Trinka's Paraphrasing Tool. Designed to deliver coherent rephrasing while maintaining the original meaning.

Plagiarism Checker

Plagiarism Checker

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Make Your Writing More Effective with Trinka’s Grammar Checker

Trinka's AI grammar checker checks your writing and improves your sentences holistically – for tone, structure, word choice, and readability – unlike other sentence checkers. Streamline your workflow with our professional grammar checker- it incorporates three products in one. Get a sentence checker, spell checker, and a punctuation checker.

Get more than just grammar check and ensure your writing is clear and concise.

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Learn Grammar with Trinka's Grammar Checker

Every grammar correction is a learning opportunity. Trinka's grammar checker doesn't just highlight errors but also explains how to fix them, which will help you become a better writer. You get an indicative score of the overall language quality of the content too.

Through Trinka's AI grammar checker, students can learn how to write effectively and inculcate best writing practices.

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James Smith - testimonial

First, I love Trinka. Congratulations on developing something that extensively aids editing, especially critical grammar conventions and word count reductions.

James Smith

Emmanuel Lochin - testimonial

I've been using Trinka for four months now, and I have extensive experience with other grammar checker systems. I've used the proofreader for two ten-page papers, and I must admit, I'm quite impressed by its quality and usefulness. I am very satisfied with Trinka and strongly recommend it for academic proofreading.

Emmanuel Lochin

Rosa Diaz Sandoval - testimonial

Writing texts with correct English grammar and style is not an easy task for people who speak other languages. Sometimes you cannot find little mistakes in your document without help and moreover for academic writing. I tried Trinka AI as a tool of automatic correction and was quite glad with the suggested corrections and the feedback. With the feedback you understand why the suggested change must be taken into account.

Rosa Diaz Sandoval

Fouad Khalifa - testimonial

Trinka has a robust proofreading feature that allows me to effortlessly upload entire manuscript documents and receive fully tracked changes in a single step. Moreover, its unique supporting tools such as citation checker and journal finder, significantly enhance the efficiency of my research endeavours.

Fouad Khalifa

Jesse Rumball-Smith - testimonial

I just wanted to say thank you for such a great and free service, all the other grammar checkers and writing assistants I have tried don’t have nearly the depth of features let alone all available on a free subscription. As a student with little income available I am extremely grateful that unlike all others companies you don’t limit features on the free plan. This is a fantastic product and given the income I would definitely upgrade to the premium. I've let all my fellow students know about Trinka as it is seriously a life saver.

Jesse Rumball-Smith

Dr. Farooq Rathore - testimonial

I have mainly used it to improve the language, grammar, and syntax of the scientific manuscripts that I write for national and international biomedical journals. I have found the interface to be user friendly and the procedure itself is efficient and hassle-free. The auto-edit is a great help and the supplementary page with the revision summary is an excellent idea.

Dr. Farooq Rathore

Dr. Nitin Wahi - testimonial

Trinka AI is a great tool to help beginners in research publication. Its grammar editing, online proofreading with file download, citation checker, plagiarism checker, paraphraser, and journal finder provide amazing features at your fingertips. Even the free Trinka Basic plan can be invaluable for researchers in their early stages or at PG levels, helping them improve project reports and papers to meet publication standards. Overall, I'm extremely impressed with Trinka AI, as it stands out among research writing tools. Give it a try and you will love it! Thanks Trinka AI team for this valuable tool.

Dr. Nitin Wahi

Georgieva Milena - testimonial is my most favorite choice for grammar and spelling edit. The application works correctly, is fast and tidily! Completely satisfied!

Georgieva Milena

Dinesh Gupta - testimonial

The grammar checking tool exceeds Grammarly! I re-checked some documents that I had checked earlier with Grammarly. I was pleasantly surprised to see such a product from India!

Dinesh Gupta

Aftab Hussain - testimonial

Trinka has awesome features. Advanced level of academic writing checker and suggestion are so original. I would highly recommend to others.

Aftab Hussain

Edith Davies - testimonial

I have tested Trinka and am impressed with its fine capabilities. It did better than the grammar checkers I use. Well done! I have told my colleagues in my research lab to use Trinka. Hope it is widely used in academia.

Edith Davies

Noor Al-rishi - testimonial

Trinka AI's suggested corrections and feedback astounded me. It is simple to use and extremely beneficial

Noor Al-rishi

Nwaji Jude - testimonial

It's been a wonderful experience using Trinka and I almost can't submit any manuscript without re-evaluating with it. In summary, Trinka has been a life-saver.

Stumpf Curtis - testimonial

I trust and use Trinka as a final spot check for my edited documents. It helps me find the few remaining errors that I have missed during the primary editing. I really like using this platform for my writing. One particular feature that works well for me is the thumbs down button.

Stumpf Curtis

Dyke Gareth - testimonial

I think is a very interesting and potentially useful idea, especially for editors/publishers/journals. I found it very useful when I checked my editing work on the platform.

Dyke Gareth

Bhargava Sharma - testimonial

I am happy with the overall performance. I have been using Grammarly for a long while, but when it comes to academic or technical writing, Trinka is definitely a much better option. Academic document settings and auto file edit are my favorite features.

Bhargava Sharma

Ralph Bailey - testimonial

Trinka has become my go-to tool for grammar corrections. The AI-powered corrections and language enhancements made writing a lot more easier. Now I am able to focus more on research than on writing an error-free document.

Ralph Bailey

Thomas Andres - testimonial

The grammar correction and suggestion based on the AMA style guide is really impressive! Trinka is indeed the best grammar correction tool for medical writing.

Thomas Andres

What are you waiting for?

Trinka’s grammar checker faq.

We tested 5,778 words from five academic domains on other free grammar checkers. We checked for the accuracy of corrections, style guide preferences, conciseness, and contextual spelling checks – and stood out proficiently. For a detailed comparison, check out our comparison whitepaper .

⚡ AI-Powered Grammar Checker🌐 Support: US, UK, JP, TW, CN, KR, PT, ES
🆓 Signup: Free🛢️ Large Academic Database
✅ Checks: Powerful Grammar, Plagiarism and Spelling📋 Easy to Search and Use

Trinka isn't your typical grammar checker. It's an excellent choice for academic and technical writing. Trinka's free plan includes more features than most other premium grammar checkers. Our premium plan is reasonably priced and offers more features that cover your every writing need!

Trinka’s grammar checker can be used on any web browser. It is also available as a browser plug-in for the most popular browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge, to help you get grammar corrections on your favourite websites. Trinka is also available on MS Word add-in for premium users.

Trinka Enterprise solution offers a variety of easy-to-integrate options. You may use Trinka JS to integrate grammar check into your website by simply inserting a code snippet or use Trinka API that lets you integrate Trinka into any of your existing products or workflows.

If there is plagiarized content in your text, it will be detected by Turnitin. Trinka does not write on your behalf, so any plagiarism performed by you is your sole responsibility. You can, however, use Trinka’s plagiarism checker to avoid circulating plagiarized content.

Trinka suggests corrections to your writing through our proprietary AI technology and does not use ChatGPT/GPT-X to correct the text. Therefore, Trinka-corrected human writing should not be labelled as AI writing.

Use Trinka to check your writing online for free. It is an advanced AI-powered tool that makes your writing clear and easy to understand. With Trinka, you can check your text for everything from minor punctuation errors and typos to nuanced grammatical mistakes and phrasing problems. You can check your grammar for free anywhere on the internet with Trinka's browser plugin as well as in MS Word using the Trinka add-in for Word.

In order to check the grammatical correctness of a sentence, simply paste it in Trinka's spelling and grammar checker . Trinka will thoroughly check the sentence for punctuation, grammar, and vocabulary mistakes.

Just install Trinka's browser plug-in for your favorite browser and let Trinka check the grammar of your tweet. Get instant grammar check across Twitter.

Install Trinka's MS Word add-in to get corrections in real time. Moreover, the Trinka Proofread File feature in the add-in can automatically edit your MS Word document in track changes, which you can then download from Word's side panel and finalize. Become a Premium member to use this powerful tech to make your writing clear and confident.

Trinka’s grammar checker uses advanced natural language processing (NLP) algorithms that are trained on millions of manuscripts in different subject areas. Trinka is also powered by handcrafted grammar rules that are continuously tested and updated to provide holistic content improvements.

Just install Trinka's browser plug-in and get instant grammar check automatically on your favorite browsers.

The Trinka grammar checker has been specifically designed for academic content. Hence, it is the best free grammar checker for academic and research content. Our assessments on relevant datasets show that Trinka generally achieves >90% precision and >80% recall.

Trinka's MS Word add-in checks and provides free instant grammar checks . Moreover, Trinka Proofread File automatically edits your MS Word document in track changes, which you can download and finalize.

Trinka’s free grammar checker goes beyond grammar checks and enhances your writing for sentence structure, style, tone, and much more.

Trinka spelling and grammar checker can be accessed freely on this page only up to 300 words, but with its basic plan you can use it up to 5000 words for free.

Trinka goes beyond grammar and spelling, so it will not just assist in enhancing the grammar of your document but also holistically improve the language quality of your document.

Because Trinka's grammar checker is specially designed for academic and formal/technical writing, it is the online best grammar checker for manuscripts.

In Trinka's free grammar checker , there is an inbuilt feature known as Consistency Checker . It identifies 5 variations of inconsistencies in a single click.

Trinka grammar checker offers an add-in for MS word users, Trinka also has an auto file edit feature where your document is automatically checked for grammar errors in seconds, and you get all the suggestions in track changes.

Trinka's free grammar checker needs an active online connection to provide real-time suggestions.

Trinka's free instant grammar checker will automatically proofread your text to ensure that it is in the most suitable form. You can click on the suggestions that appear for the underlined text to correct spelling mistakes and grammar errors or to apply style suggestions.

With Trinka's Basic plan, you can check your grammar for free anywhere on the internet with Trinka's browser plugin .

Absolutely! Trinka’s grammar checker provides suggestions with explanations for you to learn from your mistakes and make an informed change to your content.

The quality of the original writing will determine this. A proofreader would be beneficial if you do not speak English and make several complex errors pertaining to logical construction in English. Trinka can fix thousands of grammatical mistakes and complex writing problems. However, AI is limited. If the construction is not logical, it cannot decipher your intended meaning. For those who possess sufficient knowledge of the English language to construct logically correct sentences, Trinka grammar checker can take care of tone, word choice, grammatical constructions, spelling, and a whole lot more.

Yes, Trinka’s grammar checker can correct punctuation and improve the quality of your content.

The Trinka Premium grammar checker can be accessed at a 20% discount by students. Reach out to [email protected] to avail this discount.

Trinka's grammar checker only supports English.

Use the Trinka browser plug-ins , depending on your browser of choice, to take advantage of Trinka's free grammar checker across all websites.

Once you sign up for Trinka's Basic plan and download the Trinka browser plug-in , you can access it across websites and correct your grammar anywhere, online. You can also use Trinka Word add-in for MS Word documents.

Besides spelling and grammar, Trinka's grammar checker also corrects punctuation, sentence structure, tone, etc. to improve your content.

Yes. the Trinka grammar checker excels at revising academic/technical documents. We recommend that you use it for theses, research papers, reports, essays, and other formal documents.

Currently, Trinka AI does not support any other language except for English. However, we are continuously working on updates and improvements, and it is planned to be available in future updates. Stay tuned for further announcements regarding language support.

Grammar checking has become an expected feature for any writers nowadays. Trinka made it easy to integrate free grammar checking feature into any online editor. We've build a grammar checking tool that makes this easy. You should be able to integrate grammar and spell checking into your editor in a few minutes.

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  1. Paperpal's Free Spell Checker for Error-Free Research Papers

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  1. (PDF) The Effect of Spell-Checker Features on Spelling ...

    The Effect of Spell-Checker Features on Spelling Competence among EFL Learners: An Empirical Study September 2022 International Journal of Social Sciences and Educational Studies 9(3):101-111

  2. Systematic review of spell-checkers for highly ...

    This paper presents a spell checker project based on Levenshtein distance and evaluates the system's performance on both parallel and sequential implementations.

  3. Systematic review of spell-checkers for highly inflectional ...

    Out of these seven papers, one paper is related to Malayalam word generation, two are related to morphological analysis and the remaining 4 papers propose spell-checking techniques. First three papers answer the research questions Q3, Q4 and Q5 along with Q9 and Q10 where as other four papers which propose the spell-checking techniques are able ...

  4. The Influence of Spell-checkers on Students' Ability to Generate

    Recent studies show that spell- checkers help reduce students' surface errors in writing by flagging. spelling errors and giving correct spelling suggestions. This study investigates if the ...

  5. A context sensitive real-time Spell Checker with language adaptability

    Spell checker and correction is a well-known and well-researched problem in Natural Language Processing [1]-[4]. However, most state-of-the-art research has been done on spell checkers for English [5], [6]. Some systems might be extended to other languages as well, but there has not been as extensive research in spell checkers for other ...

  6. Free AI Spell Checker

    How does this spell checker work? This is an AI-powered online spell checker. To never worry about spelling mistakes again, just copy-paste or type your text into the box. The spell checker will then go through what you've written and mark any errors in red. To fix all your mistakes, click the green "Fix All Errors" button to correct your ...

  7. Systematic review of spell-checkers for highly inflectional languages

    It also highlights the major challenges faced by researchers along with the future area of research in the field of spell-checking. References. Abdullah M, Islam Z, Khan M (2007) Error-tolerant finite-state recognizer and string pattern similarity based spelling-checker for Bangla. ... Proceedings of COLING 2012: demonstration papers, pp 199 ...

  8. Spelling Checker Algorithm Methods for Many Languages

    Spell checking plays an important role in improving document quality by identifying misspelled words in the document. The spelling check method aims to verify and correct misspelled words through a series of suggested words that are closer to the wrong word. Currently, Spell checkers for English language are well established. This article analyses several studies conducted in various types of ...

  9. A spell checker for a low-resourced and morphologically rich language

    In this research, a spell checking is designed for Filipino-low-resourced morphologically rich language. It detects and corrects typographical errors in the language and introduces a modified version of metaphone algorithm for ranking the candidate suggestions. The system results to 81% recall, 53.64% precision, 64.53% f-measure, and 87.78% ...

  10. spell check Latest Research Papers

    Our result analysis demonstrates that with denoising and spell checking, our model has achieved an accuracy of 98.11% when compared to 84.02% without any denoising or spell check mechanism. Download Full-text.

  11. PDF Spell Checker

    spell checker carries out the following processes: It scans the text and selects the words contained in it. It then compares each word with a known list of correctly spelled words (i.e. a dictionary). This spell checker might contain just a list of words, or it might contain additional information, such as word division points or lexical and ...

  12. Free Online Proofreader

    Fix mistakes that slip under your radar. Fix problems with commonly confused words, like affect vs. effect, which vs. that and who vs. that. Catch words that sound similar but aren't, like their vs. they're, your vs. you're. Check your punctuation to avoid errors with dashes and hyphens, commas, apostrophes, and more.

  13. Accommodations Toolkit

    Spell check is a software feature that identifies possible misspellings, and either autocorrects or suggests possible corrections (Cullen et al, 2008; MacArthur, 1999). It is sometimes referred to as spell checker, spelling checker, spelling assistance. Spell check can help students correct spelling errors with less time focused on the writing ...

  14. (PDF) Design and Implementation of NLP-based Spell Checker for the

    Tamil ( ) is a Dravidian language largely-spoken by the residents of South India and parts. of North India. It is one of the longest surviving traditional language s and is also widely spoken in ...

  15. Essay Checker: Free Grammar & Plagiarism Check

    Thankfully, the EasyBib Plus plagiarism tool provides all-in-one support to cover all your bases. Our premium essay checker is convenient, easy to use, and includes access to a grammar and spell checker, plus a plagiarism checker. With a single scan, you'll receive personalized feedback to help identify potentially missing citations and help ...

  16. Spell Checking Techniques in NLP: A Survey

    This paper is discussing both the approaches and their roles in various applications of spell checkers in Indian languages. Spell checkers in Indian languages are the basic tools that need to be developed. A spell checker is a software tool that identifies and corrects any spelling mistakes in a text. Spell checkers can be combined with other applications or they can be distributed individually.

  17. [PDF] Spell Checker for OCR

    Spell Checker for OCR. Yogomaya Mohapatra, A. Mishra, A. Mishra. Published 2013. Computer Science. TLDR. This system for text correction based on approximate string matching, which uses a statistical model that incorporates techniques like Confusion Matrix and N-gram Analysis, for OCR-generated text, that selects candidate words through the ...

  18. Paperpal's Free Spell Checker for Error-Free Research Papers

    Paperpal's free spell checker is an AI writing assistant for anyone working on academic papers or other written documents. It's designed to catch and fix spelling mistakes, ensuring your writing is error-free and polished. Whether you're a student crafting a research paper, an academic preparing a manuscript, or anyone working on written ...

  19. SymSpell4Burmese: Symmetric Delete Spelling Correction Algorithm

    Spell checker is a crucial language tool of natural language processing (NLP) and becomes important due to the increase of text-based communication at work, information retrieval, fraud detection, search engines, social media and research areas. In this paper, automatic spelling checking for Burmese is studied by applying Symmetric Delete Spelling Correction Algorithm (SymSpell). We ...

  20. Free AI-Powered Essay and Paper Checker—QuillBot AI

    Our free essay checking tool gives your essay one final review of usage, grammar, spelling, and punctuation. You can feel great every time you write an essay. Utilize our AI-powered essay and paper checker for precise analysis and correction. Enhance your writing with our efficient AI essay and paper checker tool.

  21. Integrated Model to Develop Grammar Checker for Afaan Oromo using

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a non-word Afaan Oromo spell checker. The system is designed based on a dictionary look-up with morphological analysis (i.e. morphology ...

  22. PaperRater: Free Online Proofreader with Grammar Check, Plagiarism

    PaperRater's cloud-based software digs deep into the syntax and structure of your text without the need to sign up, login, or download. You won't find another tool offering plagiarism checking, automated proofreading, grammar check, and automated scoring that can analyze your text this quickly. Use Now FREE!

  23. Free Grammar Checker

    Trinka is an AI-powered, free grammar checker and language enhancement writing assistant designed specifically for academic and research paper proofreading. In addition to advanced grammar checks, Trinka improves your writing for vocabulary, tone, syntax, and more. Trinka offers advanced grammar checks and contextual spelling corrections ...

  24. (PDF) Spell Checker for OCR

    Spell Checker for OCR. Yogomaya Mohapatra, Ashis Kumar Mishra, Anil Kumar Mishra. Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Orissa Engineering C ollege. Bhubaneswar, Odisha, Pin-752050, India ...

  25. Online Spell Checker

    A spelling checker like Microsoft Editor can improve your writing by making corrections and refinements to spelling, grammar, punctuation, and style. Improve your writing with an online spell checker tool. Microsoft Editor helps improve the quality of your documents with tips, resources, and spelling best practices.